Saccharification Saccharomyces Saccharomyces Cereviseae Sack Sacramental Wines Saint-Amour Sainte-Foy Bordeaux Saint-Emilion Saint-Emilion Grand Cru Saint-Estephe Saint-Joseph Saint-Julien Saint-Véran Sak Mead Sakaya Sakaya No Sake Saketini Salento Salento Igp Salento Rosso Igp Salmanazar Salta Samson San Benito County San Bernabe San Francisco Bay San Joaquin Valley San Juan San Luis Obispo San Luis Obispo County San Pasqual Valley San Rafael Sancerre Sangiovese Sangiovese del Rubicone Sangiovese di Toscana IGT Sangria Sangrita Santa Barbara Santa Barbara County Santa Clara Valley Santa Cruz Mountains Santa Lucia Highlands Santa Maria Valley Santa Rita Hills Santa Ynez Valley Santiam Sapwood Sardegna DOC Satus Sauternes Sauvignon Blanc Savennières Savoie Sazerac Schloss Schlossabzug Scofflaw Screaming Orgasm Screwdriver Scuppernong Sec Secco Secondary Fermentation Seibel Seimaibuai Seishu Sekt Semillon Seneca Lake Sercial Serving Beer Set Seyval Blanc Seyve-Villard Shandy Shatter Shawnee Hills Shenandoah Valley Sherry Sherry Cobbler Shiraz Shizuku Shochu Shoot Shot Berries Shubo Sidecar Sierra Foothills Simcoe® Singapore Sling Single Cask/Single Barrel Single Malt Whiskey Sirah Six-Row Malt Skimming Skunk Slow Comfortable Screw Against the Wall Smoked Malt Smv Snake River Valley Snipes Mountain Snowball So2 Soave Soave Classico Dop Soft Solano County Solera Sommelier Sonoma Coast Sonoma County Sonoma Mountain Sonoma Valley Sorachi Ace Sour South Africa South Australia South Coast South-Eastern Australia Southeastern New England Southern Oregon Southside Sovereign Spain Sparkling Sake Sparkling Wine Spatburgunder Spatlese Specific Gravity Spicy Spirit Safe Spoilage Spring Mountain, Napa Valley Spritz al Bitter Spritzig Spritzy Spumante Spur St. Emilion St. Estèphe St. Georges St. Emilion St. Helena, Napa Valley St. Joseph Blanc St. Joseph Rouge St. Julien St. Laurent Stabilization Stags Leap District, Napa Valley Staling Stalks Stalky Standard Mead Stein Stellenbosch Stemmy Stems Still Wine Stomata Straight Stuck Fermentation Styrian Aurora Südsteiermark Sugaring SuIfur Dioxide Suisun Valley Sulfite Sulfuring Of Hops Sumadija Summer Summit™ Super Alpha Super Pride Sur Lies Swan Hill Swan Valley Swartland Sweet Sweet Pomace Sylvaner Syrah
Saccharification is the process of converting starch into sugar. The application of heat to a starch is the catalyst of saccharification. (Spirits,Sake,Beer/Production)
Saccharomyces is a genus of yeasts used in fermentation. (Beer/Production)
Saccharomyces Cereviseae
Saccharomyces cereviseae is the scientific name of a yeast which changes the sugar of fermentable materials into the alcohol of beverages. In brewing it is sometimes called top-fermenting yeast. (Wine/Chemistry & Flaws)
Sack is an outdated term for fortified wines from Spain of the Canary Islands. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Sacramental Wines
Sacramental wines are wines used for sacramental purposes (as in Christian communion) by a church or its representatives. The need for sacramental wines caused many monasteries to grow vineyards and make wine down through the ages. Production of sacramental wines was the only reason some wineries in the U.S. were allowed to remain open during the years of prohibition. See Altar Wines. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Saint-Amour is the most northerly of the Beaujolais crus, bordering the Macconais. Additionally, there are 12 special vineyards that are allowed to be listed on the label. There are two styles produced: One is a classically styled, light, fruity, floral wine and the other is a bigger, spicier version that has the ability to age and develop for up to five years. (Wine/Appellations)
Sainte-Foy Bordeaux
The best wines from Bordeaux reflect the personality of the Bordelais, the name of the locals, not the sauce. As a group, the Bordelais tend to mix the haughtiness of the Parisians with even more haughtiness of being producers of wines that everyone wants at seemingly any price. Think of them as Parisians with big egos. So what does that say for the taste of the wines? Well, in a nutshell, they are very serious, tautly structured, well-flavored, tannic, and of the finest quality. “Mais oui, but of course! Zat is why it is zo expensive. It is ze best quality, it is from a famous chateau, how dare you question ze price. You are American, yes?” And so it is that you will be “welcomed” into the hearts and homes of Bordeaux, the worlds most famous wine region.

While you can’t expect the warmth and charm of a visit to Sonoma, you just might be impressed by the chateaux and the wines. Bring along your own good company and things will be just fine. The region is vast, and may be best approached from a home base in the city of Bordeaux. Driving north from the city, you will arrive in the heart of the sub-region known as the Medoc. The Medoc, or Left Bank, is littered with famous wine villages such as Margaux, St. Julien, Pauillac, and St. Estephe. The better vineyards hug the gravelly left bank of the Gironde River. Red wines based on Cabernet Sauvignon primarily, with added Merlot and Cabernet Franc, reach unsurpassed levels of quality here. Lafite Rothschild and Latour are neighboring chateaux in Pauillac. But in this swank vineyard area, the chateaux are mostly a façade purchased by Asian and Parisian bankers.

Across the river to the Right Bank is the somewhat more inviting village of St. Emilion. This village is all cobblestone and history. Just outside the town are the vineyards which produce the world-famous Cheval Blanc and Chateau Ausone wines. The reds of St. Emilion and the adjacent Pomerol (Pomerol doesn’t have a village, per se) are relatively softer, smoother, and more voluptuous than the wing-tip wines of the Left Bank. This is due, for the most part, to the focus on Merlot and Cabernet Franc primarily, with Cabernet Sauvignon as a minor player. They are still very serious, very well-made, and very long-lived wines. Chateau Petrus is a Pomerol estate you may have heard of.

The Bordeaux region is also known for world-class dry whites from Graves, which are made up of Semillon and Sauvignon Blanc, and for the sweet, botrytised wines of Sauternes. Chateau Haut Brion Blanc is one of the best dry whites, while Chateau d’Yquem is the role model for all the sweet wines of the world, let alone Sauternes.

Bordeaux is like no other wine region in the world. To be more precise, Cru Classé Bordeaux is sold like no other wine in the world. Americans do not actually drink all that much Bordeaux wine--about the same volume as many small European countries. In the U.S. wine trade Bordeaux is synonymous with Cru Classé wines, although they only represent the tip of the iceberg of the vast amount of wine produced in the Gironde Department of South Western France. The vast bulk of this unclassified wine from humble producers is sold at modest prices for everyday consumption.

Opaque, impossibly tannic wines are a thing of the past in Bordeaux. Winemaking styles are far from homogenous but Bordeaux wines are increasingly of the deeply colored, softer, riper mold, particularly at the top level. Even first growths are much more approachable on release than they were twenty years ago. Modern vineyard management and winery techniques are permitting the Bordelaise to produce ever more attractive young wines. There seems little doubt that the French have taken a look at the manner in which Australian, Chilean, and California wines have threatened their markets and acted accordingly to raise their technical game.

Distinctly non-traditional technology is allowing the well-funded chateaux to combat their occasional unfriendly climate. Many of the top growths now have must concentrators, devices that allow the removal of excess water from the grape must. These devices are called into action in the Médoc during a rainy harvest and could well be the reason that many top estates show wines with little evidence of rain dilution.

Key Varietals

Red Wines
Cabernet Sauvignon
Cabernet Sauvignon is the world's most popular premium red wine grape due to the quality of the red wines it produces in the Medoc, where it forms anywhere from 60- 90% of the blend of a typical wine. It forms a lesser though still dominant proportion of Graves blends and a minority (with a few exceptions) of Saint-Emilion and Pomerol blends. Its late ripening accounts for the later harvest in the Medoc. It is strongly associated with the flavors of blackcurrants when ripe and when unripe it can be herbaceous and display unpleasant tannins.

Cabernet Franc
Cabernet Franc is an earlier ripening relative of Cabernet Sauvignon. When ripe it has a spicy, olivey character though it can be overtly herbaceous when unripe. It is generally used in small amounts to add complexity to Medoc and Graves blends. In Saint-Emilion and Pomerol it can form as much as 50% of a blend.

Merlot is the perfect blending counterpart to Cabernet Sauvignon as it produces softer, fleshier wines with more supple tannins that can soften the sometimes tough, austere nature of Cabernet Sauvignon. It rarely dominates a Medoc or Graves blend; though frequently does so in Saint-Emilion and is used almost exclusively in Pomerol. Significantly, Merlot ripens earlier than Cabernet Sauvignon.

Petit Verdot
Petit Verdot is a minor variety in Bordeaux whose principal contribution is color and backbone supplied from its thick, tannin-rich skin. However, it rarely ripens in Bordeaux. When unripe it produces harsh blending wine. If used it will be in very small quantities of 1-5%.

White Wines
Sauvignon Blanc and Semillon
Sauvignon Blanc is the most widely planted white variety in Bordeaux, where, under the guise of Bordeaux Sec it typically produces cheap, pleasant white wines of no great distinction. Large appellations such as Entre-deux-mers are synonymous with value priced, clean Sauvignon Blanc. Nowhere in Bordeaux does Sauvignon Blanc reach the varietal intensity of examples from the Loire. However, in the Graves, Sauvignon Blanc is rendered in its finest form, often with some oak influence and a small proportion of Semillon, the other white grape of Bordeaux. Indeed, this is the basis of Pessac-Leognan, a sub-appellation of the Graves. Here, use of new oak and low yields produce rich, succulent white wines that have the capacity to age.

Semillon's ability to rot in a noble fashion, concentrating sugars within the grape, in the communes of Sauternes and Barsac is, of course, the basis for the great sweet wines of Bordeaux. Sauvignon Blanc plays a minor, supporting role in Bordeaux's sweet wines. (Wine/Appellations)
Along with Ugni Blanc, this is a French name for the grape known in Italy as Trebbiano. It is used in Cognac for distillation and in other regions of southern France for white table wines. See Trebbiano. (Wine/Grapes)
Saint-Emilion Grand Cru
The Right Bank of Bordeaux, due east of the city, encompasses the ancient town of Saint-Emilion and the nearby commune of Pomerol. The vineyards of both communes are planted heavily to Merlot and Cabernet Franc, which favors the cooler, often richer soils here more-so than those found in the Médoc. Saint-Emilion is a complex region with many soil variations within a small area. Nonetheless, with the Medoc as a frame of reference, the character of right bank wines can be said to be a degree richer in alcohol, and more fruit-centered with more supple, quicker maturing tannins: All traits which have endeared them to modern wine drinkers. The Saint-Emilion Grand Cru appellation designation is the first of the three Grand Cru levels for the Saint-Emilion appellation and is determined every ten years by quality-control tastings.

Bargain seekers should pay particular attention to the outlying Saint-Emilion satellite appellations, recognizable by having their commune names hyphenated before Saint-Emilion on the label. The right bank proper also encompasses Fronsac, Côte de Bourg and Côtes de Blaye all of whose wines attract far less media interest and carry much lower price tags.

Merlot on the Right Bank is harvested, on average, two weeks earlier than the Cabernet Sauvignon of the Left Bank. This simple fact makes generalizations about the character of a vintage in Bordeaux difficult to encapsulate by assigning a number to a vintage in "Bordeaux." Vintages that bring rain at harvest can be poor in the Medoc and much more successful on the Right Bank. In such cases, getting the grapes in before the rain is the difference in quality in Bordeaux, and this is no small matter in a region that often gives estate managers anxiety attacks as rain clouds darken the sky when vines are heavy with almost ripe grapes.

The phenomenon of the Saint-Emilion garagiste, the small scale winemaker with little more than a garage and a plot of vines, has grabbed the attention of the fine wine world with deeply concentrated, tiny production wines that command hefty prices. Garagistes have been providing much of the buzz of excitement in the region in recent years and their wines continue to set new price records in the fine wine world. (Wine/Appellations)
Northernmost of the major red wine communes of the region of Medoc. (Wine/Appellations)
St. Joseph starts where Condrieu ends and stretches 40 miles southward along the west bank of the Rhône, taking in vineyard sites with, to say the least, varying potential for quality production. The better vineyards lie at the southern end of the elongated appellation and in the hands of the top producers (Yves Cuilleron, Pierre Coursodon, Alain Graillot) make outstanding red Syrah-based wines and white Marsanne and Roussanne-based wines. Both are worthy of the serious attention of any Rhône wine devotee. The worst wines, often made from vines on flatlands that are quite unsuited to Syrah production, are consumed locally. (Wine/Appellations)
Smallest of the four great communes which make up the Medoc region of Bordeaux. (Wine/Appellations)
Saint-Veran is one of the eight communes in the Maconnais to the south of the Cote de Beaune in Burgundy. It is known for producing the highest quality wines save for its neighbor, Pouilly-Fuisse. Saint-Veran wines are exclusively white and only use Chardonnay.

The region shares the chalk and clay soils of Pouilly-Fuisse and has a range of coveted east and south facing slopes. Styles range widely as does quality depending most on individual producer and vineyard site. In general, good Saint-Veran provides excellent value and is meant to be drunk on release, though the best producers make wine that will develop in bottle for five years or more. (Wine/Appellations)
Sak Mead
The term "sack" is rarely used today. Often these meads will simply be labeled as fortified. This cateogry of mead typcailly ranges in alcohol from 14% to as much as 18%. Fortified meads require a greater concentration of fermentable sugar, which commonly results in a mead with a greater honey character, body, and of course, alcohol.
(Mead/Classification & Attributes)
A sakaya is a shop that sells sake. (Sake/People and Places)
Sakaya No Sake
Sakaya no sake is, historically, sake that was made in a temple brewery. (Sake/Classification & Attributes)
A classic martini that substitutes sake for vermouth! This drink reportedly originated in New York City around the time of the “Martini Craze” and the heyday of the Cosmopolitan. Hiroaki Aoki, founder of Benihana restaurants says in his book Sake Water From Heaven that "if a cocktail made with sake is pleasing to the palate, why should tradition stand in the way of progress?". (Spirits/Cocktails)
The Salento IGT encompasses wines produced from grapes grown in the provinces of Taranto, Lecce and Brindisi in the region of Puglia. This includes whites, reds, frizzante and passito wines. There are numerous varieties, primarily red, such as Negroamaro and Primitivo, while white varieties include Verdeca and Malvasia Bianca. Most of the reds are spicy, with rich tannins and are reasonably priced. (Wine/Appellations)
Salento Igp
The Salento IGT covers wines produced in the provinces of Brindisi, Taranto and Lecce in southern Puglia. This is a very warm region known for its bold and spicy reds made from such varieties as Negroamaro and Primitivo. Plantings are high density, with large yields, so production is high, yet the wines retain a lot of body and character. There are also white, rosé and sparkling wines made under the Salento IGT designation; white varieties include southern Italian varieties such as Fiano, as well as international ones such as Chardonnay. (Wine/Appellations)
Salento Rosso Igp
The Salento Rosso IGT covers dry red wines produced in the provinces of Brindisi, Taranto and Lecce in southern Puglia. This is a very warm region known for its bold and spicy reds made from such varieties as Negroamaro and Primitivo. Plantings are often in valleys with high density; yields are large, so production is high, yet the wines retain a lot of body and character.

The IGT boundaries for Salento Rosso are identical to those of the Salento IGT designation. (Wine/Appellations)
A salmanazar is an oversize wine bottle used for promotional purposes and to exaggerate the aging abilities of certain wines. It contains the equivalent of twelve 750ml wine bottles. (Wine/Service)
Salta is a wine region in the far northwest of Argentina not far from where the country borders Chile and Bolivia. It is a new frontier of sorts with some of the most extreme and remote vineyards on the planet. At a latitude of 24 degrees south (on a parallel with Alice Springs in the south or the Sahara as a northern equivalent) one would think it impossible to make wine, but the latitude is counterbalanced by vineyards at extreme altitudes on the east flank of the Andes--some reaching nearly 10,000 feet!

The resultant UV extremes can see daytime temperatures in the vineyards getting as hot as 100 degrees F in summer before crashing 50 degrees or more overnight. This results in a long growing season that provides varietal intensity and good acidity. While Malbec and Cabernet are grown, Merlot and even the Uruguyan specialty Tannat are being experimented with as cooler climate options. Unsurprisingly, the region has also begun to garner a reputation for intense whites from Torrontes and Chardonnay. (Wine/Appellations)
Samson is a compact viticultural zone in Israel on the eastern edge of the Mediterranean. The region is named after the biblical character that frequented the area. The biggest producer of Samson wines is Carmel Winery, established by Baron Edmund de Rothschild of Bordeaux fame. Cultivation is focused mainly on international grape varieties such as Carignan, Grenache, Muscat Blanc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Sauvignon Blanc, Riesling, and Chardonnay. (Wine/Appellations)
San Benito County
San Benito County is the source for many high profile wineries’ ‘Coastal’ lines, but the county name and its six AVAs have been noticeably absent from wine labels. An exception is, of course, Calera at Mt. Harlan.

Times are changing and the image of San Benito County as a viable and diverse wine region is gaining momentum. New winery and vineyard developments and the resurrection of old vineyard plots should be credited with this resurgence. This has led to an almost four fold increase in vineyard acreage in the last decade.

Once the almost exclusive domain of former industry giant Almaden, San Benito County now boasts a healthy mix of small and large scale wineries and vineyards supplying some of the state’s most prestigious wineries. Although many of these wineries continue to label these wines under the larger Central Coast appellation, it should not be long before they follow the lead of San Benito County’s resident wineries, identifying and labeling their wines as products of San Benito County or one the region’s distinct AVAs. (Wine/Appellations)
San Bernabe
The San Bernabe AVA near Salinas in Monterey County, is unique in that is represents a single vineyard. As you might imagine, it is not a small vineyard, but a very large one of 5000 acres that is owned by Delicato Family Vineyards. The San Bernabe AVA is also part of the larger Monterey County AVA. There are cool breezes from the nearby Santa Lucia Highlands that have a moderating effect on the warm climate here. More than 20 varieties are planted here, with Malvasia being the most abundant; other cultivars include Riesling, Pinot Grigio, Shiraz, Chardonnay and Zinfandel. Several producers purchase San Bernabe grapes; most wines are very reasonably priced at $15 or under. (Wine/Appellations)
San Francisco Bay
The northern section of the Central Coast AVA includes: Alameda, Contra Costa, Santa Clara, San Francisco, and San Mateo counties and the adjacent Santa Cruz Mountains AVA. There are around 6,400 acres of planted vineyards and more than 100 wineries, ranging from small start-ups to historic leaders of the California wine industry.

Chardonnay is prominent with 1,600 acres. The most widely planted red wine grapes are Cabernet Sauvignon at 1,200 acres and Merlot at 900 acres. Approximately one percent of the total state wine grape production comes from this district.

Cooled by the San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean, the warm days and cool nights provide classic grape growing conditions. The primary soil type is well-drained gravel that reduces vigor in the vines and increases flavor concentration in the fruit. (Wine/Appellations)
San Joaquin Valley
The San Joaquin Valley is California's major grape growing region. The valley produces a large volume of the state's wine. In fact, a bottle labeled 'California Wine' is more than 70% likely to have originated in the San Joaquin Valley. The climate ranges from region III to V and produces a large tonnage of table and raisin grapes as well as those for wine. The San Joaquin Valley makes up a huge portion of inland California south of Sacremento bordered by the Tehachapi Mountains, Sierra Nevada, and coastal mountain ranges. (Wine/Appellations)
San Juan
San Juan is Argentina's second largest wine producing region after Mendoza. It is located to the north of Mendoza and shares similar attributes on the eastern flank of the Andes Mountains. The region's vineyards are warmer, and lie on alluvial plains between 2,000 and 4,000 feet in elevation.

It is a semi-desert and relies on irrigation from rivers flowing down from the Andes for irrigation. The "zonda," a hot dry wind that can tear through the region is a distinctive feature, helping to air the vines, but also occasionally fierce enough to cause damage.

San Juan is an older region that was long known for producing more "high-octane" blending wines, but in recent years has been looked to by some of Argentina's larger wines as a source of weighty blending components or rich, distinctive wines in their own right— the Pedernal Valley, a region only 60 miles north of the city of Mendoza being the prime example. (Wine/Appellations)
San Luis Obispo
San Luis Obsipo wine country (or SLO wine, if you will) is located in south central California, about midway between San Francisco and California. There are two AVAs: Eden Valley, a very cool district, no more than five miles from the Pacific, and Arroyo Grande, a slightly warmer zone. The entire region runs from west to east - somewhat unusually - and is influenced by late afternoon winds from the ocean. About two dozen varieties are planted her, with the most important being Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Riesling. Pinot Noirs tend to be quite rich with an herbal streak, while the Cabernet Sauvignons have an earthiness and restraint. (Wine/Appellations)
San Luis Obispo County
San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara counties make up the southernmost district of the Central Coast AVA. There are 27,600 acres of wine grapes planted in San Luis Obispo County and 16,600 acres planted in Santa Barbara County, totaling more than 44,000 acres. Together they make up 7.4 percent of the total state production. The number one wine grape variety in San Luis Obispo County is Cabernet Sauvignon with 8,600 acres. Merlot is second with 4,200 acres. There are about 110 wineries in the County.

The city of Paso Robles, situated 20 miles inland from the Pacific Ocean, is in San Luis Obispo County, halfway between San Francisco and Los Angeles. The area is characterized by warm, clear days, generally unencumbered by clouds, fog or severe winds. Nighttime temperatures drop by approximately 40 degrees, cooled by a marine layer that moves over the region after sunset. Proximity to the ocean, orientation of the numerous canyons and valleys, and varying elevations produce diverse macroclimates, allowing production of both cool and warm loving winegrape varieties. (Wine/Appellations)
San Pasqual Valley
With a profusion of grape varietals and something of a reputation for success in warm-climate viticulture, this AVA on the outskirts of San Diego is a land teeming with orchards, pastures and part of San Diego's famous zoo.

Although the area has only two wineries, vineyards are planted to a mixture of varietals, including award-winning Syrah and Viognier, as well as Tempranillo, Grenache, Merlot and Sangiovese. Even though it’s located in California’s southernmost county, the valley enjoys its proximity to the Pacific Ocean.

Cooled by offshore breezes, the valley rarely reaches temperatures exceeding 95 degrees F. The region benefits from well-drained, granite-based soils, and cool evening temperatures, preserving acidity and color. (Wine/Appellations)
San Rafael
The San Rafael wine region is situated in the center of the Mendoza region, in western central Argentina. Vineyards in this region are situated from 1600 to 2300 feet above sea level; vines are planted on various soils, ranging from alluvial to limestone and clay. In general, the soils are poor, which limits yields. Malbec, as you might imagine, is the signature variety from San Rafael; Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc are also important in this semiarid zone that receives very little rain. (Wine/Appellations)
Pouilly-Fume, along with Sancerre, come from the Upper Loire Valley, which is actually the most southern and easterly sector. This region is dominated by Sauvignon Blanc and is thought of as the ancestral home for classic, varietal expressions of the grape, while Pinot Noir is used for the more limited production of reds and rose.

Pouilly-Fume is produced around the town of Pouilly-sur-Loire on the opposite bank of the Loire River from Sancerre. The vineyards of Pouilly are marked by a type of flint known as "silex" that is interspersed with limestone. This imparts a sharp, minerally quality to the wines.

Pouilly only produces white wines, while Sancerre also produces red and rose from Pinot Noir. In general terms Pouilly-Fume tends to be a bit fuller and richer in texture than Sancerre and Sancerre has a sharper, more exuberantly varietal edge. Much depends on producer and while classically unoaked, some produce luxury cuvees that have been oak aged. Nonetheless, Sancerre and Pouilly Fume are among the world's best sources for Sauvignon Blanc and both can provide great value. (Wine/Appellations)
Sangiovese is Italy's most widely planted grape, found in several regions including Umbria, Abruzzo and Marche, but its spiritual home is Tuscany. Several famous wines made from Sangiovese are produced in Tuscany, including Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano and Brunello di Montalcino.

A wine made from Sangiovese has appealing red cherry fruit, tart acidity and medium-weight tannins. There are few red wines more pleasant that a young Chianti with its delicious cherry fruit and earthy finish. While s simple Sangiovese-based wine is made for enjoyment from two to five years of age, a wine such as Brunello di Montalcino, 100% Sangiovese, is at the other end of the extreme, as it is a wine that often ages for two decades or more.

Sangiovese is also grown with some success in California as well as Australia. Pair wines made from Sangiovese with lighter red meats, duck, poultry and pastas with marinara or Bolognese sauce. (Wine/Grapes)
Sangiovese del Rubicone
Sangiovese del Rubicone is produced in the Rubicon Valley in the Emilia-Romagna region of central Italy. The Rubicon Valley is historically significant as it is believed that Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon river in 49 BC. Today it is notable producer of wines for the dinner table. These wines are food friendly and full of Sangiovese varietal characteristics. Expect moderate tannins, fresh cherry flavors, and higher acidity. Sangiovese del Rubicone is a perfect wine for table when serving rustic pasta dishes or chicken parmesan. (Wine/Appellations)
Sangiovese di Toscana IGT
Wines labeled as Sangiovese di Toscana can come from any region in Tuscany and must contain at least 85% Sangiovese. In broad terms, this is the base table red of Tuscany and is either produced from an area not entitled to use one of the more glamorous sub-appellations or is comprised of wine that a producer has declassified from a more prestigious cuvee. (Wine/Appellations)
Sangria is a Spanish cocktail of brandy, wine, and fruit. Many cultures throughout time have consumed similar beverages, but Sangria has become particularly popular internationally. This is a highly modifiable drink and we recommend putting your own spin on it with various fruit juices, garnishes, wine styles and spirit fortifiers. (Spirits/Cocktails)
There are many delicious variations on this tequila accompaniment. Traditionally made with just orange juice, lime juice, and pomegranate juice, many versions today rely on tomato juice as well. Use the following recipe as a guideline and adjust it to your tastes. Maggi sauce, Tajín, smoked salt, or cilantro are all fun twists to put on the the drink to make it your own.
Santa Barbara
Santa Barbara County in southern California, has been a hotbed of new plantings and producers over the last twenty-five years. Located near the Pacific Ocean about 100 miles north of Los Angeles, there are six AVAs in the county, from Santa Maria Valley at the north, to Santa Ynez Valley in the south. This results in a variety of micro-climates and terroirs, with several of the zones running east-west. These latter districts enjoy the benefits of ocean breezes sweeping across the vineyards, moderating the afternoon heat. Pinot Noir and Chardonnay, two cool climate varieties, excel in this county, especially in zones such as Santa Maria Valley and Sta Rita Hills, while Riesling and Merlot have been successful in Santa Ynez Valley. (Wine/Appellations)
Santa Barbara County
As one drives south, and south, and south from San Francisco, logic would follow that the climate would be correspondingly warmer. In general terms this is true, but when you finally make it down to Santa Barbara you find out that the immediate area is, in fact, downright chilly. It has to do with a quirk of nature and California's tortured geology. Between Alaska and the Strait of Juan de Fuca at South America's tip, the coastal mountain ranges have a north-south orientation, effectively blocking the maritime influence of the Pacific, but for the few gaps to be found here and there.

The valleys and mountains around Santa Barbara, however, have an east-west orientation which ushers in the cool Pacific air. Were it not for this, we would be discussing the area's affinity for Port. In several small valleys near the coast in San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara Counties, however, the conditions have all come together for the production of world class Pinot Noir. Two vineyards in particular, "Bien Nacido" and "Sanford & Benedict", are among the very finest Pinot Noir sites in the state and supply many of the top producers. Additionally, since there are subtle differences again between fruit from the Edna, Arroyo Grande, and Santa Maria Valleys, it is quite common to see producers blend their Pinot Noirs with a range of sources.

Generally, however, the area produces wines that are exceedingly generous in their fruit characters, from lighter cherry to plum flavors, but rarely if ever with the overripe aspects common to warmer climates. The intriguing varietal characters that are found in Pinot Noir often complement this forcefulness of fruit. It is often described as a subtle stemminess or gamey quality that adds a tremendous amount of complexity to the bouquet and avoids the simple red cherry spectrum of the grape. In very broad terms and specific examples notwithstanding, it is this area which at the moment often produces the state's most complex examples of Pinot Noir. (Wine/Appellations)
Santa Clara Valley
The Santa Clara Valley is a rather large AVA that extends south from the San Francisco Bay along the edge of the Santa Cruz Mountains. With the growth of Silicon Valley, however, there are more housing developments than vineyards. While the AVA’s winemaking importance is more historical than contemporary, there are still a few quality vineyards and wineries that have resisted suburban encroachment.

Santa Clara has a long history of grape growing and winemaking that dates to the days of the Spanish Missions. For many years, Santa Clara had everything going for it, including a favorable climate, good soil, and proximity to the population centers of the Bay Area.

Before Santa Clara was settled, much of its terrain was a flood plain. There are a number of alluvial fans as a result of this water movement. The deep, gravelly and well-drained soils of Santa Clara Valley are excellent for high-quality grape growing. Most of the vineyards are clustered in the southern part of the region.

The remaining Santa Clara Valley wineries are a testament to the perseverance of local vineyard owners and winemakers. Most of the area has long since lost its agricultural heritage, and undergone commercial and residential development, but several Santa Clara wineries are dedicated to keeping the local wine legacy alive. (Wine/Appellations)
Santa Cruz Mountains
Santa Cruz is certainly one of California’s more improbable, dare one say impractical regions. This craggy, imposing, conifer peaked range of mountains nestles along the southwestern side of the San Francisco Bay, encompassing the San Andreas fault and some of the Golden State’s finest vineyard locations.

Specifics of climate, and hence resulting wine styles, can vary with altitude and aspect of vineyards, making sweeping generalizations or even gradual variations in character impossible to extrapolate. Rainfall and average temperature vary significantly with altitude, and sunshine hours will be dependent upon the specific vineyard orientation, with east facing slopes being considerably warmer. However, given the mountainous terrain and the poverty of the shale-like soil, yields are ungratifyingly low, and viticulture is labor intensive. These factors alone account for the lack of corporate money and presence in the Santa Cruz Mountains, notwithstanding the ownership of Ridge Vineyards by a Japanese financial services company. It is an outpost of devoted amateurs and occasional eccentrics seeking focused seclusion.

The region mostly falls solidly into Region I (the coolest viticultural climate) on the UC Davis heat summation scale, with the warmest areas achieving Region II status (on a par with Russian River Valley). This puts it in a class of its own in California, as few other Region I/II areas can satisfactorily ripen Cabernet Sauvignon to the level of intensity seen here. Impeccable canopy exposure and low yields certainly play their role, but long slow ripening with plenty of sunshine hours on favorable east facing slopes certainly is a major factor. Thus, Santa Cruz is actually a warmer area than it would appear at face value.

The region’s greatest and most historic winery is none other than Ridge Vineyards, whose Monte Bello Vineyard, at an elevation of over 2,000 feet, first planted in 1885, was one of the first vineyards to be established here. This hallowed and somewhat inaccessible, though magnificently situated terraced vineyard, produces some of the world’s most highly sought after, and longest lived Cabernet. The style is always deep, firm, and rich, but focused, with a great clarity of fruit flavors that maturity does not seem to blur. Paul Draper’s Zen-like stewardship of this winery since 1969 has seen its reputation, and price, match its celestial elevation of 2,660 feet.

Making world class wine is a labor of love when done at altitude in the Santa Cruz Mountains and this philosophy is not likely to change, even with the currently inflated prices of top Californian Cabernets. Developing terraced vineyards in remote mountainous regions will always be an expensive proposition, and combined with miserly low yields will always be a deterrence to all but the most far-sighted of investors. After all, even on the Cote-Rotie in France, it is still more rewarding for some farmers to grow artichokes than Syrah. (Wine/Appellations)
Santa Lucia Highlands
The Santa Lucia Highlands AVA is on the western bench of the Salinas Valley in Monterey County. This region consists of a series of terraced, hillside vineyards that are known for producing Pinot Noir and Chardonnay. Summer afternoons are typically sunny, but are cooled by coastal winds from the Pacific Ocean.

Pinot Noir and Chardonnay are well suited to the area's climate. The limestone-based soils, wind, and fog in the best vineyards bear a passing resemblance to conditions in Burgundy’s Cote d’Or. The Santa Lucia growing season is also couple weeks longer than most other regions in the area, which allows grapes to ripen slowly and methodically.

Major wineries sourcing Santa Lucia fruit include Mer et Soleil, Paraiso Springs, Hahn, Talbott, Morgan and many others. Indeed, the region has garnered an extraordinary reputation in among the state's best vintners in a relatively short period of time. (Wine/Appellations)
Santa Maria Valley
The often foggy and windswept Santa Maria Valley is the northern most appellation in Santa Barbara County. The region’s first officially approved AVA enjoys extremely complex soil conditions and diverse microclimates. Chardonnay and Pinot Noir are two varietals that especially benefit from the ocean’s influence, and are the flagship wines of this appellation.

There are about 15 Santa Maria Valley wineries and 7,500 acres of vineyards. There is not as much of a boutique wine scene here as in other regions, but this is starting to change. The most prized vineyards in the Santa Maria Valley are grown east of Highway 101 on elevated benchlands. These benchlands are perfectly suited for Pinot Noir and Chardonnay, which enjoy the cool breezes from the Pacific Ocean. During the 1970s and 1980s, Kendall-Jackson, Beringer Vineyards, and Robert Mondavi planted vines throughout the region.

The quality of Santa Maria Valley grapes is so widely recognized that the fruit is not just used in winemaking at wineries in the appellation. Santa Maria Valley grapes are also used by wineries throughout Santa Barbara County and at many wineries outside of the county. The famous Bien Nacido Vineyard provides grapes for several premium wineries in the state. (Wine/Appellations)
Santa Rita Hills
The Sta. Rita Hills AVA is situated in the western reaches of the Santa Barbara County wine zone; it is entirely within the Santa Ynez Valley AVA. The Sta. Rita Hills AVA is about a 30 minute drive north of the city of Santa Barbara, and about a 90 minute drive north of Los Angeles. Sta. Rita Hills is an east-west valley, where breezes and fog from the nearby Pacific Ocean pass through the vineyards, creating a moderating effect and keeping this area cool even on hot summer days. 2700 acres are planted here, with 2100 being Pinot Noir, about 500 dedicated to Chardonnay, with the remainder being Syrah, Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Gris, Pinot Blanc and Viognier. In a little more than fifteen years. Sta. Rita Hills has become one of the most sought after appellations for California Pinot Noir, as the wines combine bright strawberry and dark cherry fruit, very good acidity and firm structure; the entry level Pinot Noirs are delicious, while the single vineyard and special selection offerings have the depth of fruit and the grip to age gracefully for a decade or more. Prices range from $20-$65 a bottle.

(One note: While the name of the AVA is pronounced Santa Rita Hills, just as it is written, it must be written as Sta. Rita Hills. This, the result of a court decision after Santa Rita Winery of Chile sued, claiming that the name "Santa Rita" for this AVA could cause confusion.) (Wine/Appellations)
Santa Ynez Valley
The Santa Ynez Valley AVA is the largest sub-region in Santa Barbara County. Santa Ynez Valley’s wine history began in 1804, when the first vineyards were planted by the Spanish. In that year, Mission Santa Ines was founded in what was then an isolated, peripheral part of Alta California. Despite these early origins, the majority of Santa Ynez Wineries did not emerge until the 1960s. Until then, the conventional wisdom was that the climate was too cold to grow grapes for the jug wines that the market demanded at the time.

The valley has a relatively narrow opening to the Pacific Ocean at the western end which shelters more inland locations. Additionally, the elevation rises significantly as one moves east, with important implications for the climate and local vineyards. A number of different grapes thrive in the vineyards of the region. Santa Ynez produces everything from graceful Riesling to robust Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon with the general rule that cool climate varietals thrive in the cooler western end of the valley and move to more heat-loving red varietals as temperatures rise the further east one moves from the Pacific. (Wine/Appellations)
Aroma hop used in beers when a noble hop aroma is desired such as Helles, Bocks, Koelsch, and Pilsners but also in Belgian-style Ales, IPAs, and Pale Ales. Aromas include black pepper, other spices, and wild flowers. Similar to German Tettnang and Spalt. Commercial examples of Santiam include: Smuttynose Finest Kind IPA, Terrapin All-American Imperial Pilsner. (Beer/Hops)
Sapwood is the outer portion of woody (xylem) tissue, located just inside the cambium and just outside the heartwood. Sapwood forms the primary highway for transmission of water and minerals from the roots up through the vine. (Wine/Other)
Sardegna DOC
Sardegna DOC refers to a wine produced on the island of Sardegna that is not covered by one of several specific DOP designations of Sardegna (such as Vermentino di Gallura). Wines covered include white, red and sparking, generally from varieties such as Vermentino (white), or Cannonau and Carignano (red).

The most famous reds, such as Cannonau and Carignano are medium-full to full-bodied with distinct notes of tobacco, black spice and brown herbs. The are best matched with peppers, game and other hearty dishes. The most famous whites, made from Vermentino, are heavenly when paired with shellfish. Both the reds and whites age well; the reds are often best after seven to ten years and peak between 12-15 years of age. For the whites, as Vermentino has such high acidity, these wines have ideal structure for aging and can drink well for a minimum of five years and are often in excellent condition after 10-12 years. (Wine/Appellations)
Bittering hop with intense, but clean, bitterness and sometimes citrus flavors. Used in IPAs, Stouts, and Barley Wines. Similar to Galena. Commercial examples of Satus include: Russian River Hop 2 It. (Beer/Hops)
The south west of France visibly has a little bit of the U.S. Deep South in the communes of Sauternes and Barsac. The phenomenon of microclimate that renders this part of Bordeaux largely unfit for conventional wine making also encourages the growth of sub-tropical vegetation in addition to nobly rotting the grapes on the vines.

With little more than a glass of wine per vine produced at the highest level, the more justifiable record high prices for Sauternes and Barsac have encouraged great improvements in the region through infusion of money and expertise. Good Bordeaux sweet wine can now be made far more frequently than even ten years ago.

It takes an entire row of vines to produce one glass of Chateau d’Yquem, undoubtedly the world’s finest dessert wine. The grapes are primarily of the Semillon varietal, with a small amount of Sauvignon Blanc and Muscadelle added to the blend. Semillon’s thin skin, coupled with the damp, cool, and misty climate makes it especially prone to infection from Botrytis Cinerea, or noble rot.

The infected grapes dehydrate and shrivel up into gooey, slimy masses of pulp. When pressed, all that comes out are exquisitely concentrated flavors and sugars. After fermentation, the resulting wine is rich and viscous, but beautifully balanced, with an undercurrent of fresh acidity from the zesty Sauvignon Blanc. So from this most unsavory start comes the nectar of kings. And it takes a King’s ransom to get your hands on a bottle of this liquid gold. Fortunately there are many wines from the surrounding areas that, while perhaps not as magical, at least are very good representations of the style and reflections of their unique origins.

Barsac and Preignac are on flatter land, and their wines are slightly less rich and sweet than those from the hillier communes. Look for producers such as Chateau Caillou, Chateau Coutet, Chateau de Malle, or Chateau Suduiraut. (Wine/Appellations)
Sauvignon Blanc
Sauvignon Blanc is a bit of a chameleon of a variety, as it changes its character depending on where it is grown. Most famously in France’s Loire Valley, (especially in Pouilly-Fumé and Sancerre), it is a rich dry white with distinct herbal notes in the nose and on the palate. In New Zealand, the flavors range from gooseberry to tropical; both styles have very good natural acidity. Certain areas in Chile also produce very tropical-driven examples with a touch of herbal character, while the typical California style is clean with melon and spearmint fruit with only traces of herbal notes.

Many styles of Sauvignon Blanc – especially those from New Zealand – are aged in steel tanks to preserve the aromatic qualities, while some producers in Sancerre or even in California age in wooden barrels; this for added texture and spice. Medium-full in body, Sauvignon Blanc is especially excellent paired with shellfish or seafood or lighter poultry with herbs. (Wine/Grapes)
Savennieres is a district on the north bank of the Loire River in the Anjou-Saumur region, across the river from Coteaux-du-Layon and its sub-appellations. The wines here are produced entirely from Chenin Blanc and are almost always dry. The region is spread over three hills marked by a prevelance of schist in the soils, and 360 acres are under vine.

Within this district there are two more precise sub-regions: Savennieres-Roche-aux-Moines with 82 acres and Savennieres-Coulee-de-Serrant with 17 acres. The latter was first planted in 1130 by Cistercian monks and is owned entirely by the Nicolas Joly estate, which is entirely biodynamic in its production methods. This single wine is, in essence, its own appellation, and labeled as Clos de Coulee de Serrant. It is on the short list for most as one of the world's greatest dry white wines.

Savennieres tends to be richer, more intense, and fuller bodied than dry Vouvray. It is relatively high in acidity and shows an incredible ability to age, making it potentially austere in youth. In certain vintages Botrytis will make an appearance and though these grapes can still, somewhat unusually, be incorporated into dry wines they will more often come with a bit of sweetness. Helpfully, when this is the case, the wines will carry the following designations: "Demi-Sec" for wines with 0.8 to 1.8% residual sugar, "Moelleux" for wines with 1.8 to 4.5% residual sugar, and "Doux" for wines with more than 4.5% residual sugar. (Wine/Appellations)
Savoie wines are from a small area in southern France near the Swiss border just south of Lake Geneva. The nearby Alps are always in sight; indeed this is a land of hillside vineyards.

This is primarily a white wine territory (70%), thanks to the cool temperatures and mountain breezes. Leading varieties include local ones such as Jacquere and Roussette, while there is also some Roussanne and Chardonnay planted as well. Savoie whites are generally high in acidity, with apricot and pear flavors; these wines work well with local cheese such as Reblochon and Emmenthal de Savoie.

Red varieties include Mondeuse, a local specialty, as well as cool climate cultivars such as Pinot Noir and Gamay. The wines are medium-bodied, with very good acidity, dark cherry and plum flavors and sleek tannins. Local cheeses such as Tomme de Savoie and Tome des Bauges are recommended with these reds, as are poultry and lighter game birds.

Rosés make up about 6% of total production, with 4% sparkling. Only about 5% of these wines are exported; total vineyard acreage is about 5000 acres. (Wine/Appellations)
It all began for the Sazerac cocktail in the early 1800's when Antoine Amedee Peychaud mixed Cognac with his Peychaud bitters. In 1859 the drink was the signature drink of the Sazerac Coffee House in New Orleans, where it received its name. The exact reason for the substitution of rye whiskey for the Cognac is unclear, but a whiskey base is used today. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Schloss is the German word for castle; on a wine label it is equivalent to the French word "Chateau." (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Term used on wine labels in Germany to indicate that the wine was bottled on the estate (Castle). It is equivalent to estate bottled. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Appropriately named after the term given to those who clandestinely sipped spirits throughout Prohibition, the Scofflaw Cocktail debuted in 1924 at Harry’s Bar in Paris. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Screaming Orgasm
An enormous sugary, boozy dessert cocktail with a sexually explicit name. (Spirits/Cocktails)
A simple combination a vodka and orange juice has been a favorite of young drinkers for decades. An unlikely but mostly plausible origin story is that American oil workers in the Persian Gulf discreetly added vodka to their orange juice while on the job. Lacking a spoon, the workers stirred their drinks with what else but a screwdriver. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Scuppernong is a cultivar of the Muscadine grape- A truly American variety. They are yellowish orange in color. The wines are too pungent in flavor for most wine aficionados. However, the wine still has its followers, especially among those who grew up with the taste around North Carolina. (Wine/Grapes)
Sec is a French term meaning dry. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Secco is an Italian word for dry (wine). Equivalent to the French sec. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Secondary Fermentation
A secondary fermentation is one which happens after the primary (yeast) fermentation has been completed. Malolactic fermentation is a secondary fermentation which occurs in many alcoholic beverages. Another type of secondary is a yeast fermentation which changes still beverages into sparkling ones. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Albert Seibel was a French Hybridizer who produced hundreds of new hybrid wine varieties, hoping to find some which could grow on their own roots in Phylloxera infested soils, while producing the traditional flavors and aging potentials in their wines of historical European varieties. Many of his hybrids are in commercial use today, although none fully met the standards he was looking for. (Wine/People and Places)
Seimaibuai is the amount of sake rice remaining after milling. (Sake/Classification & Attributes)
Seishu is a Japanese legal term for what in the West is known as "sake". In Japan, "sake" refers to any alcoholic beverage. (see also Nihonshu) (Sake/Classification & Attributes)
Sekt is the German word for sparkling wine. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Semillon is a white grape planted most notably in Bordeaux and Australia. While there are some fine dry versions of Semillon (especially from the Hunter Valley in Australia), the most famous use of Semillon is as part of the blend of a Sauternes, the famous dessert wine of Bordeaux.

Semillon as a dry wine has a flavor profile of lemon, apple and tropical fruit along with notes of magnolia and figs - this last a classic descriptor for the wine. Medium-bodied, the acidity varies as to the climate it is grown in. Pair these wines with lighter seafood, risotto or light white meats and consume them by their fifth to seventh birthday. (Wine/Grapes)
Seneca Lake
Seneca Lake is an AVA wine zone in the Finger Lakes in upper New York State. Although this is a cold climate, grape growing is successful here, as the lakes offer moderating effects, meaning that frosts are rarely a threat; of course, breezes form the lakes also help mitigate summer heat. There are about 35 producers that call the Seneca Lake area home.

As would be expected, cool climate varieties such as Riesling, Gewurztraminer, Chardonnay and Pinot Noir dominate local plantings, along with hybrids such as Vidal and Niagara. The wines made from these varieties have very good natural acidity; this is especially good for ice wines made from Vidal and Riesling. There is a small amount of red wine made from Merlot and Cabernet Franc as well.

Pair the Rieslings with grilled chicken or fresh fruit desserts, Merlot and Cabernet Franc with lamb or grilled meats, while the dessert wines are ideal on their own or with apricot tarts. (Wine/Appellations)
Sercial is a Portugese wine grape that was once important on the island of Madeira. It is now only sparsely grown on the island and the term is mostly reserved for the highest acid, lightest style of Madeira wine. (Wine/Grapes)
Serving Beer
Proper beer service involves the consideration of the correct temperature, drinking vessel, agitation, decanting, etc. (Beer/Service)
Set refers to the fixing of tiny, newly pollenated berries to the stem of a vine shoot. Without set, the pistil (containing an ovary) would simply dry up and fall off. After set, it becomes more firmly attached to its stem and develops into a grape berry. (Wine/Other)
Seyval Blanc
Seyval Blanc is a white French hybrid that works well in cool climates, given its delicate fruit notes and high acidity. Producers in the Finger Lakes district of New York State, Canada and even England craft notable wines from the variety.

Most versions offer simple pear and apple notes, while a few of the best display touches of honeyed nectarine and coconut cream. (Wine/Grapes)
Seyve-Villard was a French hybridizer who has produced a large number of new hybrid varieties, looking for Phylloxera resistance coupled with fine wine quality. Many of his new hybrids are in commercial production today. (Wine/People and Places)
A shandy is a beer mixed with a soft drink such as lemonade, sparkling lemonade, juice, ginger beer, etc. Usually combined 1:1 this concoction makes for a refreshing and low alcohol all-day sipper. More popular in western Europe than other parts of the world, different regions have many varients such as the radler, panaché, and Biermischgetränk. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Shatter is the drying up and falling of unsuccessfully pollenated pistils leaving a nearly bare skeleton rachis (with few berries attached) where a fully populated cluster should be. (Wine/Other)
Shawnee Hills
The Shawnee Hills AVA, created in 2006, is one of two AVAs in the state of Illinois. Located at the southern end of the state, near the junction of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, there are currently 20 wineries in this zone, in the forest named for the hills. Vineyards are planted on rolling hills; there is a total of 300 acres planted. Most varieties are hybrids such as Chambourcin, Norton and Chardonel, while there is also some Cabernet Franc planted. A few producers also release fortified wines such as port and sherry. (Wine/Appellations)
Shenandoah Valley
The Shenandoah Valley AVA of California, or more correctly, California Shenandoah Valley (to differentiate it from the Shenandoah Valley AVA of Virginia), is situated in Amador and El Dorado Counties in the Sierra Foothills region of California. Vineyards are located some 1400 feet above sea level, yet this is still a very warm zone for growing grapes. Zinfandel is the leading variety and the one that first brought fame to this area, when Sutter Home Winery first produced Zinfandel from Shenandoah Valley grapes in the 1970s. The dry, hot climate here yields robust wines; these Zins regularly check in at 15% alcohol and higher. (Wine/Appellations)
Shenandoah Valley
The Shenandoah Valley is the largest of the seven AVAs in the state of Virginia (note: a small section of this AVA is located in West Virginia). The AVA is situated in the western reaches of the state, near the Blue Ridge Mountains. The climate is largely continental, but prevailing winds aid growing conditions, making this a bit warmer than other wine regions of the state. A wide variety of grapes are planted in the AVA, from hybrids such as Vidal, Chambourcin and Traminette to international varieties such as Chardonnay (about 25% of the total plantings), Malbec and Merlot. Most plantings are on rolling hillsides, with some as high as 1600 to 1800 feet. Most wines are priced for less than $20, with many in the $15 and under range. (Wine/Appellations)
Fortified wine made in the Jerez (Sherry) region of southwestern Spain. Sherries can be dry or sweet, light and ethereal or robust, heavy and rich. There are only two general types (Wine/Other)
Sherry Cobbler
The Sherry Cobbler is an American-born cocktail by most accounts. Simply sherry, sugar and citrus, shaken, poured over crushed ice and slurped through a straw, the Cobbler is thought to have originated sometime in the 1820s or early 1830s. But like most 19th century drinks, its origins are foggy. Were it not for the Sherry Cobbler, which is credited with introducing the straw to popular consciousness, we might still be dumping ice down our chins to get to the bottom of a drink.
Shiraz is made in several countries, but the best-known versions are from Australia. Known as Syrah in other countries, Shiraz is a rich red wine known for its blackberry and plum flavors and moderate tannins. Some examples also have a good amount of pepper, tobacco, licorice and black spice apparent on the palate as well.

There are hundreds of versions from Australia, ranging from less than $10 a bottle to more than $40 a bottle. The lighter versions are easy-drinking and should be consumed within one or two years, while the more expensive versions are best consumed from seven to ten years of age. Shiraz in grown in several regions of Australia, the most famous being Barossa and Victoria.

Given the popularity of Australian Shiraz, some producers in California have labeled their offerings of Syrah as Shiraz.

Pair these wines with grilled and barbecued foods, game birds and roasts. (Wine/Grapes)
Shizuku is a delicate method of filtering sake by suspending the moromi in cloth bags and allowing it the liquid to drip through via gravity. (Sake/Production)
Shochu is a distilled beverage from Japan that is made from either barley, buckwheat, sweet potatoes or rice. The alcoholic content is generally 25%, although a shochu that is multi-distilled can be as high as 35%. It is normally consumed on its own or on the rocks or sometimes with fruit juice.

Shochu can be aged in various vessels, including steel tanks, wooden barrels or clay pots. The flavors will depend on which type of vessel was used; flavors and aroma vary from pastry dough to roasted chestnuts to fruit cake. Some have an earthy, grassy finish, while others are more like aged whisky. (Wine/Chemistry & Flaws)
A shoot is the elongating, green, growing vine stem which holds leaves, tendrils, flower or fruit clusters and developing buds. (Wine/Other)
Shot Berries
Shot berries are the few small, seedless grapes sometimes found in an otherwise normal bunch of wine grapes. The cause is improper fertilization during the blooming period. (Wine/Other)
Shubo is a yeast starter for sake, also known as Moto. (Sake/Production)
The sidecar is a favorite because it is one of the few appropriate places to use sugar rim. The dry nature of the cocktail gets a little bit of a sweet pick-me-up from using superfine sugar along the rim and skipping and extra sugar in the drink. If you opt out of the sugar rim, bump up the Cointreau by a quarter of an ounce or add a barspoon of simple syrup.
Sierra Foothills
The California Gold Country is also a wine region. Originating back to the gold rush days, the first grapes were planted in the 1850s, as a lot of wine was needed to quench the thirst of the Forty-Niner population that migrated to the state at this time.

The Sierra Foothills AVA stretches from Yuba County in the north to Mariposa County in the south, along the western portion of the Sierra Nevadas, with Amador, El Dorado, and Calaveras counties in the center. Within the entire Sierra Foothills AVA, which totals 2,600,000 acres, there are five sub-AVAs: California Shenandoah Valley, El Dorado, Fair Play, Fiddletown, and North Yuba.

The total winegrape vineyard acreage in the Sierra Foothills AVA is 5,700 acres. Zinfandel has the largest amount of plantings with 2,300 acres, followed by Cabernet Sauvignon with 600 acres, Syrah with 560 acres, Chardonnay with 289 acres, Merlot with 287 acres, and Barbera with 239 acres. The region crushes less than one-percent percent of the state's total winegrape production.

More than 100 wineries are nestled throughout the nooks and crannies of the foothills, with vineyards generally located between 1,500 to 3,000 feet where elevation creates a four-season climate. The shallow, mountainside soils create moderate stress on the vines, producing low to moderate yields and high quality. (Wine/Appellations)
Versatile dual-purpose hop with distinctive passion fruit, berry, pine, grapefruit, and earth aromas. Used in IPAs, DIPAs, APAs, and other American-style hop-forward brews. Similar to Cascade, but more intense or Summit. Commercial examples of Simcoe include: Weyerbacher Double Simcoe IPA, Bell's Hopslam, Russian River Pliny the Elder. (Beer/Hops)
Singapore Sling
The Singapore Sling was developed by Ngiam Tong Boon for the Raffles Hotel in Singapore in the early 1900's. It is a smooth, slow, sweet cocktail with a complex flavor. That said, this is one of those great cocktails that few people can agree how to make or what exactly goes into it.

The original recipe was almost forgotten by the hotel bartenders and when they wanted to revive the cocktail, the hotel needed to adapt the recipe from the bartenders' memories. This is just one of the newer variations and others include anything from pineapple to grenadine or other liqueurs like Cointreau. Some of these 'enhancements' have even been adapted by the original bar at Raffles. It is reported that the original did not use club soda, though we may never know for sure.

Single Cask/Single Barrel
A bottle labeled as single cask or single barrel is one which contains a spirit sourced from one single barrel. This is in contrast to the typical process of blending various barrels to achieve the desired house style. The term is not regulated and therefore should be interpreted by the consumer with a healthy level of skepticism. (Spirits/Production)
Single Malt Whiskey
Single malt whiskey is whiskey from one distillery that is made entirely of malted barley. Single malts are produced world-wide though typically the style is associated with the single malt whiskies of Scotland. (Spirits/Classification & Attributes)
Petite Sirah is sometimes referred to as Sirah in South America. It should not be confused with the more widely know Syrah. (Wine/Grapes)
Six-Row Malt
Six-row malt is the type of malted barley grown in North America that contributes a grainier flavor, more protein, and more enzymes than two-row malted barley. (Beer/Malt)
Skimming is the removal of fermentation by-products from the surface of an open fermentation vessel, either proteins (lagers) or yeast (ales). (Beer,Wine,Spirits,Mead/Production)
Skunk is a descriptor used to describe sufurous, skunky, or cat-like aromas and flavors present in beers that have been exposed to light. (Wine/Chemistry & Flaws)
Slow Comfortable Screw Against the Wall
Another cocktail of the 1980s and 1990s with a racy name and probably too much sugar. The name comes from the various ingredients: “Slow” for sloe gin, “Comfortable” for the Southern Comfort, “Screw” for the screwdriver ingredients of vodka and orange juice, and “Wall” for the Galliano- a crucial ingredient in the Harvey Walbanger cocktail. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Smoked Malt
Smoked malt is malted barley that has been dried by direct flame or smoldering wood (or other organic substance). (Beer/Malt)
SMV, Sake Meter Value, or Nihonshudo is a measurement of the sweetness level of sake. The SMV measures the density of the sake compared to water. The higher the numerical SMV value the drier the sake. (Sake/Classification & Attributes)
Snake River Valley
The Snake River Valley is an AVA located in southwestern Idaho, a bit west of Boise (the AVA also encompasses a very small section of Oregon). Of the 8000 plus acres, some 1800 acres of vines are planted. Vineyards are situated at high elevations, from 2500 feet to 3000 feet; at these heights, there are vast difference between day and night time temperatures. There are approximately 50 wineries in the zone; the leading variety is Riesling, followed by Chardonnay, Merlot and Syrah. There is a small amount of Ice Wine produced in the zone. Prices are quite reasonable, as most wines are under $15. (Wine/Appellations)
Snipes Mountain
Snipes Mountain is a sub-region of the Yakima Valley AVA, located in its southeast corner. It is geographically the second smallest appellation in the state, after Red Mountain, but has over 4,000 acres under vine. The area is located on Snipes Mountain, which is really a seven mile long ridge that includes Harrison Hill and rises nearly 1,300 feet above the valley floor.

While this AVA was only created in 2009, the region has a long viticultural history. The area was first planted in 1917 by William Bridgman and also had the state's first plantings of Semillon and Pinot Noir.

In addition to the elevation, Snipes Mountain is distinguished by having unique, rocky soils called "aridisol" that are very low in organic matter. These factors combined stress the vines and concentrate the grapes. Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon are the most widely planted varietals and while most of the region's output is still labeled Columbia Valley, an increasing number of bottlings are featuring the Snipes Mountain AVA on the label. (Wine/Appellations)
The snowball cocktail is a great wintertime libation based on Advocaat- a traditional Dutch liqueur similar to egg nog. (Spirits/Cocktails)
See Sulfur Dioxide. (Wine/Chemistry & Flaws)
Soave is a wine-producing zone in Italy's Veneto region, about an hour's drive east of the city of Verona. While much of the Soave wine produced here is from flatlands and rather simple, the finest examples of Soave are from hillside vineyards, ranging from 325 to 1000 feet above sea level.

The principal variety here is Garganega (garr-gahn-uh-ga), with Trebbiano di Soave, also found in local vineyards. Chardonnay and Pinot Bianco are also permitted in small quantities in Soave wine, but they are rarely found these days.

The Soave zone is divided into several different districts, with Classico, being the best known, and home to most of the finest wines. Here most of the vineyards are on hillsides, with a few being situated on the slopes of extinct volcanoes. It is these volcanic soils, along with deposits of limestone that give the finest offerings of Soave their distinct characteristics, as the finest wines combine structure for aging along with a distinct minerality. Many of the top artisan producers make a single vineyard bottling from this area.

To the north and west of the Classico district, the Colli Scaglieri area is much larger, split between hillsides and valleys. Along the southern reaches of the Soave production zone, from west to east, simple Soave DOC wines are made from numerous valley plantings that are often farmed to  higher yields, resulting in uncomplicated, but very typical examples of Soave. 

Soave earned a DOC designation in 1968 and today, most wines produced throughout the various districts are labeled as DOC. In 2001, the Soave Superiore DOCG designation came into existence, which was first used for the 2002 vintage.  While the DOCG may have sounded impressive, the reality was that this was the brainchild of large cooperative producers, who sought to have Soave become an important wine zone. Aging time before release was increased, while maximum yields, which were already too high, in the opinion of most area producers, were slightly decreased. The result today is that with rare exception, it is only the cooperatives that produce a DOCG Soave Superiore, as the finest artisan estates, continue to use the DOC designation.

While this is a relatively cool zone with average rainfall totals, the Soave zone can be quite warm during the summer months. This explains the marvelous tradition of many vineyards being planted in the pergola system, with overhead foliage that shields the clusters from the sun's roasting heat; under the pergola, temperatures are often 10-15 degrees F cooler than outside, helping maintain freshness in the grapes, which are a signature of this appealing, delicious white wine.

Soave works best as an aperitif and should be consumed young. Soaves which spend time on lees can stand up to grilled fish, chicken and seafood-based pastas. (Wine/Appellations)
Soave Classico Dop
Soave Classico represents the heart of the Soave wine production zone; the best situated vineyards, many of them as high as 1000 feet above sea level, are the most treasured for wines of great complexity and age worthiness.

The principal grape in Soave Classico is Garganega, which must be at least 70% of the wine; the other important variety in the zone is Trebbiano di Soave; once abundant, few producers work with this variety or introduce new plantings these days, given the difficulties of working with this variety.

What separates Soave Classico from other sectors of the Soave zone is the the classico vineyards, near the towns of Soave and Monteforte d'Alpone, have soils that are of volcanic origin. That characteristic lifts these wines above the simple sipping wine made by large producers in the area, to a weightier, more complex white, with a distinct touch of minerality.

The best examples of Soave Classico are charming wines with notes of honeydew melon and white flowers; most are unoaked. While they are immediately appealing upon release, they can be enjoyed for an additional seven to ten years (or longer) after releases. Most offerings of Soave Classico are in the $18-$25 range, making them excellent values. (Wine/Appellations)
Soft may refer to the texture or flavors of a beverage. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
Solano County
Solano County, to the east of Napa county, has been involved in California viticulture dating back to the 1800’s. In the late 1800’s, Mangels Winery, located in what is now the Suisun Valley AVA, was one of the largest wineries in the United States, growing typical grapes of the period in head pruned vineyards. Carignane was highly popular along with Zinfandel and Napa Gamay.

The western portions of the county are directly influenced by the coastal climate and are part of the giant North Coast AVA, while the eastern edge of the county, adjacent to the Clarksburg AVA has been planted in post prohibition times to more production oriented vineyards serving wineries producing volume wines that typically carry California appellations. (Wine/Appellations)
A solera is a Spanish system for aging and slow blending of Sherries in barrels. It is also known as fractional blending. Newer vintages are blended into the system periodically, as some of the aged wine is removed for bottling. Solera wines are quite consistent year after year because of the blending of many different vintages together and because, at equilibrium, as much new wine is added as old wine is removed each year. The method is employed in a variety of beverages including non-sherry wines, whiskey, and rum. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
A sommelier is a wine professional working in hospitality. The job involves a specialization is all aspects of wine service and pairing. (Wine/People and Places)
Sonoma Coast
The Sonoma Coast AVA is one of the most controversial in all of California. While the name suggests the coastline of Sonoma, near the Pacific ocean, the reality is that some of this appellation is situated quite a distance east of the coast; indeed, some plantings are found near Santa Rosa, about 20 miles from the coast. Even if the AVA is limited to the coastal area, there are some growers and producers that believe the "true" Sonoma Coast should be a very small area, centered around the town of Annapolis, in the northern reaches of the appellation. As it stands today, the entire Sonoma Coast AVA covers about 500,000 acres, with only about 1000 planted acres.

Fittingly, cool climate varieties Pinot Noir and Chardonnay dominate plantings (about 75% of the total); other varieties include Pinot Gris, Gewurztraminer, Syrah and even a trace of Zinfandel. The finest examples of Sonoma Coast Chardonnay and Pinot Noir are full-bodied wines with excellent richness on the palate and a powerful finish. These wines are striking examples of their type; Chardonnays are rich with tropical fruit and vanilla flavors, while the Pinot Noirs are powerful with distinct spice notes. These are highly complex wines for aging and are expensive; the finest Chardonnays and Pinot Noirs are priced between $40 and $75 a bottle. Other Sonoma Coast Chardonnay and Pinot Noirs from further south and east are very well made wines and are less expensive. These wines do not have the intensity of those from the Annapolis area, so the term Sonoma Coast can have a lot of meanings. There is talk of splitting up the appellation into more AVAs, but for now, this remains a bit if an enigma, as far as California wine zones. (Wine/Appellations)
Sonoma County
Trying to pin down a “Sonoma County style” is virtually hopeless. That being said it is important to point out why. Sonoma County is a designation used as a catch all for wines from the far more precise sub-appellations of the Russian River, Dry Creek, Alexander, and Sonoma Valleys, with many further divisions among them. Each area is unique and distinctive. What many producers choose to do, however, is blend wines from the various regions within the county and label accordingly. This is not necessarily a bad thing.

Following the Australian model, it makes perfect sense that if one were trying to make a balanced and well rounded wine year in and year out, the best solution might be to blend from vineyards which share complimentary qualities. Alexander Valley grapes for richness, Russian River for acidity, and Dry Creek for intensity of fruit perhaps? The resultant wines are quite good and may even be more consistent, but the blending tends to mitigate the notion of terroir, and it is dangerous to attempt to pigeon hole Sonoma County wines as a whole because they are bound to be blended from different regions, in different proportions, and for different reasons. Despite this fact, three regions in particular within Sonoma have become known for the production of high quality Cabernet: the Alexander, Sonoma, and Dry Creek Valleys.

The Alexander Valley is one of the most notable of the AVAs within Sonoma County for Cabernet. It features one of the warmest climates in Sonoma County, and as such, it is ideally suited to Bordeaux varietals. Although it is only some 18 miles from the ocean, the maritime influence is not what it is in, say, the Russian River Valley, as it is shielded by north-south mountain ranges. Alexander Valley Cabernets tend to be relatively rich, though without the weight one associates with Napa bottlings. Additionally, the acidity levels seem a shade more prominent. In this way, it might be fairly said that Alexander Valley cabernet is somewhat of a bridge in style between Napa and Sonoma, taking some of the better attributes of each, with a telltale, supple, plummy, fruit-driven quality.

As for the Sonoma Valley, it sits at the southern end of Sonoma County, abutting the Carneros. The valley proper runs between the Mayacamas Mountains, which form the border with Napa, and Sonoma Mountain. As the valley opens up past Sonoma Mountain at the town of Glen Ellen, the climate changes from that in the southern end. The area as a whole is filled with wild and precipitous hills which afford the vineyards ideal exposures to the sun. This, in combination with a lengthy growing season, moderate temperatures afforded by the cooling breezes of the San Pablo Bay and the Petaluma Gap, and fertile though well-drained soils have made for a vine growing Eden. Sonoma Valley Cabernet tends to be quite extracted with exotically deep colors and black fruit aromas. This intensity of fruit character is the wines’ hallmark, and despite the unusual level of extract, generally pronounced acidity lends a measure of balance.

As for the Dry Creek Valley, though a stones throw from the Russian River and Alexander Valleys, it is quite unique. As per usual Sonoma County’s tortured and eternally confusing geography is to blame. The natural boundaries of the valley, however, make this an exceptionally tight and well-defined appellation. The Dry Creek parallels the Alexander Valley on the western side and drains into the Russian River. From the point where the Dry Creek meets the Russian River, it is about 16 miles to the northwest where the Dry Creek Valley abruptly ends. Surrounded by mountains on three sides, with the only opening being at the Russian River, there is no outlet for wind as in the Alexander Valley. Additionally, what fog does enter from the Russian River Valley often comes in at night and burns off quickly during the day. Hence, temperatures are far warmer than in the Russian River Valley, particularly at the northern end. The valley is only two miles wide at its widest point, and the valley floor itself is quite narrow. Benchlands and hillsides dominate the region, and in the warmer northern end of the valley, red wine is king.

The Dry Creek area was largely settled in the late 19th century by Italian families, and as in other parts of Sonoma County, Zinfandel was the favored grape, interspersed with the usual blend of black varieties. Cabernet has taken root, however, and the resultant wines have that signature Dry Creek stamp, an exotic briar fruit character with crisp acidity. The wines are lighter in body than those from the Alexander or Sonoma Valleys, yet are well balanced and eminently drinkable. (Wine/Appellations)
Sonoma Mountain
The Sonoma Mountain AVA is located near the town of Glen Ellen in southern Sonoma County. Named for the mountain range that rises as high as 2400 feet, the Sonoma Mountain AVA is encompassed within the larger Sonoma Valley AVA. Vineyards are planted on steep slopes on the mountain between 400 and 1200 feet, only on the north and east sides of the mountain. Only 800 acres in total are planted, with the majority being Cabernet Sauvignon, while there are also smaller percentages of Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Noir among other varieties. The signature wine is powerful Cabernet Sauvignon with rich, but elegant tannins; the wines are somewhat approachable upon release, but are at their best from age seven to ten. (Wine/Appellations)
Sonoma Valley
The Sonoma Valley AVA is situated in the southern portion of Sonoma County, near the town of Glen Ellen. A total of 14,000 acres are planted, with one-quarter being Chardonnay; Pinot Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot are next in total acres planted. The southern sector, which is closer to the San Francisco Bay, is cooler and ideal for Chardonnay and Pinot Noir, while hillside vineyards situated further north, are ideal for Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, while there are some century old Zinfandel vines in the lowlands. In general, these are fruit-driven wines with medium-weight tannins and good acidity; the wines are very well balanced and approachable upon release. (Wine/Appellations)
Sorachi Ace
Dual-purpose hop with characteristic dill, lemon/lime, and some oak notes. Used in Witbiers, Saisons, Tripels, and Farmhouse Ales. Somewhat similar to Southern Cross. Commercial examples of Sorachi Ace include: Brooklyn Sorachi Ace, Hitachino Nest Ancient Nipponia. (Beer/Hops)
Sour is the taste sensation of acid. It is often perceived by a puckering sensation or increased salivation. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
South Africa
South Africa is one of the most intriguing wine countries in the world. Tucked away in the far southwestern corner of the African continent, it is a thriving wine region that remains a mystery to most consumers. Viticulture began here in the 1600s, when Dutch settlers planted vines; today producers work with international varieties and the latest technology to create excellent versions of Sauvignon Blanc, Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinotage, the country's signature variety.

South Africa is the ninth largest wine producing nation in the world; much of the production is situated in the Western Cape region, in the southwest near Cape Town. Maritime influences are ideal for white varieties, and indeed, Sauvignon Blanc is the leading planted variety in the country, followed by Chardonnay and then Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinotage and Chenin Blanc. Pinotage, a cross of Pinot Noir and CInsaut, is made into a range of styles from light, sipping wine to more full-bodied. A total of 250,00 acres of vines are planted in South Africa, with the majority of wine being produced by cooperatives. (Wine/Appellations)
South Australia
South Australia is a massive state in the South Central portion of the Australian continent. It accounts for fully one-half of all Australian production, and produces everything from vast volumes of supermarket wines from the arid interior of the Riverlands to most of Australia's most-coveted reds in the famous regions surrounding Adelaide and the Barossa Valley.

Wines labeled simply South Australia are often high volume blends from throughout the region, though exceptions exist, none more prominently than the penchant for Penfolds of labeling some of their most iconic reds with a simple South Australia designation. Don't be fooled. For in depth information on specific South Australian appellations consult the other regions. (Wine/Appellations)
South Coast
The South Coast AVA is the southern version of the state's other two mega-AVAs, North Coast and Central Coast. The South Coast AVA includes all of Orange County and western portions of Riverside and San Diego counties, where coastal influences moderate the warmth of the southern California sun.

There are more than 3,000 acres under vine in the appellation, much within the borders of the appellation’s sub-regions, the Temecula and San Pasqual Valley AVAs. Traditionally, Chardonnay dominated the acreage, but the area’s recent battle with Pierce’s disease has forced local wineries and vineyards to focus on more pest-resistant varietals. This is fostering an exciting new age of hardy Rhone, Italian, and Spanish grape production. (Wine/Appellations)
South-Eastern Australia
The South Eastern Australia designation encompasses the southeastern third of the continent and was designed to include all major Australian wine regions outside of Western Australia. In practice the appellation allows Australia's giant export-driven wineries a free hand in blending vast quantities of supermarket wine from their holdings in South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales.

This was particularly useful in that the majority of volume wines come from the arid interior irrigated by the Murray river and these regions technically straddle the three states. Though the odd exception does exist, this is the designation of choice for the Yellow Tail, Fish Eye, Alice White, and box wines of the nation, providing consistently reliable wines at shockingly low prices the world over. (Wine/Appellations)
Southeastern New England
The Southeastern New England AVA is situated in parts of three states: Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island. The Rhode Island sector is quite small; vineyards are located near the water, in this case, Narragansett Bay; they are planted on low hillsides to take advantage of excellent drainage as well as cooling maritime breezes. Varieties planted include a little of everything, including Cabernet Franc, Gewurztraminer, Vidal, Cayuga and even a bit of Lemberger. There is a small amount of sparking wine produced in this zone, while fruit wine is an important product from this area. (Wine/Appellations)
Southern Oregon
The Southern Oregon AVA lies in the southwest portion of the state, stretching 125 miles south of Eugene to the California border, and 60 miles at its widest between the Cascade Mountain Range to the east and the Coast Range to the west. It encompasses Applegate Valley, Elkton Oregon, Red Hill Douglas County, Rogue Valley and Umpqua Valley appellations.

Southern Oregon has the oldest history of grape growing in the state. It dates back to 1852 with an early area settler named Peter Britt, who operated a winery in Jacksonville. Post-Prohibition winemaking started in 1961 when vintner Richard Sommer migrated from University of California at Davis and founded Hillcrest Vineyards in the Umpqua Valley. Impressed with the diversity of growing conditions in this area, other winemakers began planting roots in the 1970s, resulting in a patchwork of vineyards growing both cool- and warm-climate varieties. Today, this winegrowing region continues to grow and turn out a great variety of high-quality wines. The appellation became official in 2004.

While this region provides the warmest growing conditions in Oregon, there exist cool microclimates within its varied hillsides and valleys that enable Southern Oregon to successfully grow both cool- and warm-climate varieties. This area receives significantly less rainfall than other viticultural areas in Oregon (40 percent less than the Willamette Valley) and is generally a warm, sunny, arid climate.

Southern Oregon’s soils are varied and complex, though generally derived from bedrock, specifically from the 200 million year old Klamath Mountains to the west, which are comprised of sedimentary rocks. The Southern Oregon appellation contains a varied, mountainous topography with vineyards typically situated in high mountain valleys at elevations between 1,000 to 2,000 feet. The lofty southern coastal mountains provide a barrier to the west, blocking marine air and casting a rain shadow to the area’s south and east. (Wine/Appellations)
A classic Chicago cocktail, the Southside is essentially a mint gimlet with a hint of organized crime. Reportedly Al Capone’s preferred beverage, this cocktail is named after his gang’s dominated southside of Chicago. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Dual-purpose hop used in British-style Bitters and Pale Ales, but also American lagers and Pale Ales. Floral, grassy, and minty aromas with slight green tea and vanilla flavors. Similar to Fuggles. Commercial examples of Sovereign include: Wychwood brews, Fuller's Vintage Ale, Marks & Spencer Sovereign Golden Ale. (Beer/Hops)
Spain is one of the world's most renowned wine producing nations, especially for its reds. Yet in this day and age, it remains a bit of a mystery, as it is seemingly better known as a country that releases value wines on a regular basis than one that is the home of some of the world's greatest wines.

Thanks to its location along the Mediterranean, much of Spain has an enviable climate that is ideal for growing numerous white and red varieties that have very good natural acidity and retain a great deal of freshness. Yet there are also some inland zones that are quite hot, yet are the source of impressive red wines. Then of course, there are the famous sparkling wines of Cava, many of which are quite simple, with the finest being excellent examples of classically made sparklers.

Today, Spain is the third largest wine producing country in the world, trailing only Italy and France. Certainly over the last few decades, as Cava has become a popular wine at markets in several countries, and with a dramatic increase in planting vineyards in the La Mancha region, the number for Spanish wine have risen. But Spain has been an important wine nation for thousands of years.

There are six important wine regions in mainland Spain, along with some important wines from the islands. Beginning in the far northwest, the Rias Baixas region is home to one of the country's greatest and most beloved white wines, Albariño. Produced from several local varieties and grown in a zone blessed with local breezes from the Mediterranean, Albariño is one of the world's finest aromatic whites, one with very good natural acidity as well as a distinct minerality.

The signature red variety of Spain is Tempranillo, and it is the basis of numerous reds, the most famous being Rioja. This wine zone is located in the country's northeast reaches, in the Ebro River valley. There are several style of Rioja, based on location of the vineyards as well as vine age and aging period in the cellars, so while a simple Rioja crianza is a medium-bodied, approachable red, while a Gran Riserva, aged for at least two years in oak casks and three years in the bottle before release, is a magnificent wine with graceful tannins, excellent complexity and the potential to drink well for two decades or more.

Further west, the region of Ribera del Duero has become a recent phenomenon, thanks to several influential wine critics, who have praised the intensity and fruit-driven style of these wines. Tempranillo, again, is the major player here, but many versions are beefed up with the addition of such varieties as Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Malbec, which deepen the color and add spice. Whatever the cepage for Ribera del Duero, these are also long-lived wines of marvelous complexity.

A recent development in Spain has been the planting of thousands of acres in the La Mancha region in the country's center. A hot climate and seemingly endless vineyards add up to a great deal of simple whites and (especially) reds; quality however is good and pricing is quite reasonable. In southwest Spain in the Andalucia territory, the sherries of Jerez (or Xerez) are one of the two most famous fortified wines on the planet. These remarkable wines range from very dry (fino) to lush and very sweet (Pedro Ximénez) and can age for many years. Finally, Cava, the famous sparkling wine from Penedes along the eastern coast, is world famous, with versions ranging from simple, value-priced to full-bodied wines that improve with a few years in the bottle. Spain clearly has something for everyone who loves wine! (Wine/Appellations)
Sparkling Sake
Sparkling sake is a somewhat recent phenomenon in the United States, as a way to improve sales of sake overall. Most versions are light to moderately sweet, although there are some examples that are dry; they are low in alcohol, between 5% to 8%. Most examples are sold in smaller bottles (between 180-300ml), as these do not keep their effervescence for long. They are produced naturally with secondary fermentation in a closed tank.

Most have delicate flavors such as tropical fruit, melon and custard with a lightly earthy or mineral finish. They are traditionally served in a sparkling wine flute and are normally paired with a variety of foods, from sushi and fusion cuisine to poultry and lighter seafood. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Sparkling Wine
Wine which contains enough carbon dioxide to render it effervescent is called sparkling wine. It can be of any color and made of any grape. It can have varying levels of sweetness and alcoholic strength. Sparkling wine is produced in a myriad of ways but usually involves some kind of secondary fermentation or forced carbonation. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Spatburgunder, the German name for Pinot Noir literally translates from German as "late Burgundian'. (Wine/Grapes)
Spatlese is the German word meaning "late harvest." These wines are usually sweet, high in quality and more expensive than ordinary table wines. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Specific Gravity
In regards to beer, gravity is an indicator of alcohol content. It is the ratio of the density of a liquid to water; a SG < 1 is lighter than water (usually because of high alcohol). (Beer/Classification & Attributes)
Spicy is the smell or taste sensation reminiscent of spices. It is a tasting term to describe a beverage which gives an impression as if spices had been added during production (they weren't, of course). (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
Spirit Safe
A spirit safe is a padlocked, glass walled container used in Scotch distilleries. It enables a distiller to analyze the spirit coming off the still without coming into contact with it. Historically these safes were required by law in Scotland to prevent any whiskey being siphoned off the still and sold without paying duties. (Wine/Equipment)
The results of undesirable faults in beer caused by microorganisms such as wild yeasts and bacteria are called spoilage. (Beer/Chemistry & Flaws)
Spring Mountain, Napa Valley
Spring Mountain, located on the western side of Napa Valley, covers vineyards above the town of St. Helena. Plantings are on the eastern (Napa) side of the Mayacamas Mountains; 1000 acres are under vine, between 375 and 2500 feet above sea level. Soils are primarily volcanic rock, with some sandstone outcroppings as well. Cabernet Sauvignon is the principal variety, followed by Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Petite Sirah, Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc, with traces of Riesling and Viognier. The Cabernets from Spring Mountain offer ripe plum and black currant fruit and rich, but elegant tannins; the wines are best after a few years on the bottle and age gracefully.

While Cabernet Sauvignon is the principal variety, there are a few artisan producers that do wonders with Chardonnay and Riesling. The famed Stony Hill winery was among the initial producer on Spring Mountain and their whites are among Napa's finest. Spring Mountain may be a Cabernet appellation in terms of total production, but it is not just another Napa Valley mountain appellation. (Wine/Appellations)
Spritz al Bitter
Basically a Spritzer with a generous splash of bitter liqueur (usually Campari), it’s dry and very refreshing. Popular in northern Italy, especially in Venice and the Veneto region where it is pronounced 'Spriss'. (From the German verb Spritzen, meaning spray or splash). This aperitif cocktails origins date back to the end of the 19th century when Venice was still part of the Austrian Empire. During this period German soldiers drunk the local wines of Veneto in taverns where they were billeted but they often diluted these with water to achieve a similar alcohol content to the beer they were more accustomed to drinking. Hence, the Spritzer, a combination of equal parts white wine and soda water.

In Veneto, the Spritz Al Bitter is made with the traditional white wines of the Veneto region, Pinot Grigio, Soave or Prosecco. The bitter liqueur used varies according to personal taste with Campari perhaps the driest.

Other popular bitter liqueurs used include Aperol, Gran Classico, Luxardo or Cynar. It is usually garnished with a slice of orange but sometimes an olive depending on the liqueur used. According to Gruppo Campari, In Veneto, around 300,000 Spritzes are consumed every day, that's more that's 200 Spritzes a minute. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Spritzig is the German term for the taste sensation of a wine which contains just enough CO2 to be apparent on the tongue as a prickly sensation (but not enough to be obviously sparkling). (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
See spritzig. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Spumante is the Italian word for sparkling wine. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
A spur is a shortened stub of cane, usually formed by pruning the cane to a length of only two to four nodes (buds). Spurs are obvious in the spring, after pruning but before new growth obscures the pruners' handiwork. (Wine/Other)
St. Emilion
The Right Bank of Bordeaux, due east of the city, encompasses the ancient town of Saint-Emilion and the nearby commune of Pomerol. The vineyards of both communes are planted heavily to Merlot and Cabernet Franc, which favors the cooler, often richer soils here more-so than those found in the Médoc. Saint-Emilion is a complex region with many soil variations within a small area. Nonetheless, with the Medoc as a frame of reference, the character of right bank wines can be said to be a degree richer in alcohol, and more fruit-centered with more supple, quicker maturing tannins: All traits which have endeared them to modern wine drinkers. Pomerol is a much smaller and more compact appellation, about the size of Margaux. Its wines are often more consistent in a given vintage and bargains are few among these sought-after wines.

Bargain seekers should pay particular attention to the outlying Saint-Emilion satellite appellations, recognizable by having their commune names hyphenated before Saint-Emilion on the label. The right bank proper also encompasses Fronsac, Côte de Bourg and Côtes de Blaye all of whose wines attract far less media interest and carry much lower price tags.

Merlot on the Right Bank is harvested, on average, two weeks earlier than the Cabernet Sauvignon of the Left Bank. This simple fact makes generalizations about the character of a vintage in Bordeaux difficult to encapsulate by assigning a number to a vintage in "Bordeaux." Vintages that bring rain at harvest can be poor in the Medoc and much more successful on the Right Bank. In such cases, getting the grapes in before the rain is the difference in quality in Bordeaux, and this is no small matter in a region that often gives estate managers anxiety attacks as rain clouds darken the sky when vines are heavy with almost ripe grapes.

The phenomenon of the Saint-Emilion garagiste, the small scale winemaker with little more than a garage and a plot of vines, has grabbed the attention of the fine wine world with deeply concentrated, tiny production wines that command hefty prices. Garagistes have been providing much of the buzz of excitement in the region in recent years and their wines continue to set new price records in the fine wine world. (Wine/Appellations)
St. Estèphe
Saint-Estephe is the northernmost of the named communes of the Haut-Medoc, on the Left Bank of the Gironde river. There are five Cru Classes in the commune, headed by the Second Growths, Cos d'Estournel and Montrose. In addition, there are a large number of Cru Bourgeois or other unrated wines that enjoy sparkling reputations, including Phelan Segur, Les Ormes de Pez, and Haut-Marbuzet.

Soils in the commune contain rather more clay than in the others and this, in conjunction with its more northerly location, contributes to the reputation of producing more tannic and tightly wound wines than those produced further south. Vineyard sites are a little more varied and scattered than in the other communes and this often leads to greater variability within the wines of Saint-Estephe. (Wine/Appellations)
St. Georges St. Emilion
The Right Bank of Bordeaux, due east of the city, encompasses the ancient town of Saint-Emilion and the nearby commune of Pomerol. The vineyards of both communes are planted heavily to Merlot and Cabernet Franc, which favors the cooler, often richer soils here more-so than those found in the Médoc. Saint-Emilion is a complex region with many soil variations within a small area. Nonetheless, with the Medoc as a frame of reference, the character of right bank wines can be said to be a degree richer in alcohol, and more fruit-centered with more supple, quicker maturing tannins: All traits which have endeared them to modern wine drinkers. Pomerol is a much smaller and more compact appellation, about the size of Margaux. Its wines are often more consistent in a given vintage and bargains are few among these sought-after wines.

Bargain seekers should pay particular attention to the outlying Saint-Emilion satellite appellations, recognizable by having their commune names hyphenated before Saint-Emilion on the label. The right bank proper also encompasses Fronsac, Côte de Bourg and Côtes de Blaye all of whose wines attract far less media interest and carry much lower price tags.

Merlot on the Right Bank is harvested, on average, two weeks earlier than the Cabernet Sauvignon of the Left Bank. This simple fact makes generalizations about the character of a vintage in Bordeaux difficult to encapsulate by assigning a number to a vintage in "Bordeaux." Vintages that bring rain at harvest can be poor in the Medoc and much more successful on the Right Bank. In such cases, getting the grapes in before the rain is the difference in quality in Bordeaux, and this is no small matter in a region that often gives estate managers anxiety attacks as rain clouds darken the sky when vines are heavy with almost ripe grapes.

The phenomenon of the Saint-Emilion garagiste, the small scale winemaker with little more than a garage and a plot of vines, has grabbed the attention of the fine wine world with deeply concentrated, tiny production wines that command hefty prices. Garagistes have been providing much of the buzz of excitement in the region in recent years and their wines continue to set new price records in the fine wine world. (Wine/Appellations)
St. Helena, Napa Valley
St. Helena is near the top of the Napa Valley, where it narrows significantly between Spring and Diamond Mountains to the west and Howell Mountain to the east. It is densely planted and has over 30 wineries.

Commercial wine production in the Valley began with St Helena Wineries and helped to shape the history of wine production in the golden state. In 1861, a German immigrant named Charles Krug founded the first winery in the valley. A number of other notable Germans soon followed, including the Beringers and the Schrams.

St Helena wineries make wine with grapes grown in a very warm climate. The terrain of St Helena is made of alluvial and volcanic soils. The San Pablo Bay once covered several southern AVAs in Napa Valley, but it never extended as far north as St Helena. Well-known St Helena wineries abound.

Cabernet Sauvignon and Zinfandel are the most prominent grapes that thrive in the sunny climate. These wines are usually fuller-bodied than examples from cooler, more southerly regions. (Wine/Appellations)
St. Joseph Blanc
St. Joseph starts where Condrieu ends and stretches 40 miles southward along the west bank of the Rhône, taking in vineyard sites with, to say the least, varying potential for quality production. The better vineyards lie at the southern end of the elongated appellation and in the hands of the top producers (Yves Cuilleron, Pierre Coursodon, Alain Graillot) make outstanding red Syrah-based wines and white Marsanne and Roussanne-based wines. Both are worthy of the serious attention of any Rhône wine devotee. The worst wines, often made from vines on flatlands that are quite unsuited to Syrah production, are consumed locally. (Wine/Appellations)
St. Joseph Rouge
St. Joseph starts where Condrieu ends and stretches 40 miles southward along the west bank of the Rhône, taking in vineyard sites with, to say the least, varying potential for quality production. The better vineyards lie at the southern end of the elongated appellation and in the hands of the top producers (Yves Cuilleron, Pierre Coursodon, Alain Graillot) make outstanding red Syrah-based wines and white Marsanne and Roussanne-based wines. Both are worthy of the serious attention of any Rhône wine devotee. The worst wines, often made from vines on flatlands that are quite unsuited to Syrah production, are consumed locally. (Wine/Appellations)
St. Julien
Saint-Julien is the smallest of the named communes in the Haut-Medoc, on the Left Bank of the Gironde river. It is tucked just beneath Pauillac. Soils here are dominated by small pebbles and the vineyards are clustered in close proximity to the river. This makes Saint-Julien perhaps the most homogeneous of the major communes.

While Saint-Julien has no First Growths, its small borders contain a whopping 11 Cru Classes and five of those are Second Growths, including Ducru-Beaucaillou, Gruad-Larose, Leoville-Barton, Leoville-Las Cases, and Leoville-Poyferre. The wealth of Cru Classes illustrates the depth of quality to be found here, in addition to the fact that this has been recognized for some time.

In style, the Cabernet-Sauvignon driven blends fall somewhere in between those of Margaux and Pauillac, with a little firmer structure than Margaux and a little more fruit character than Pauillac. (Wine/Appellations)
St. Laurent
St. Laurent is a medium-bodied red from the eponymous grape that is produced in Austria, Germany and the Czech Republic. It is a juicy, aromatic red with bright cherry fruit and has similarities to both Gamay and Pinot Noir; acidity is tart and tannins are not heavy. It is equally at home next to a roasted turkey and a classic lasagna. (Wine/Grapes)
Stabilization is any treatment or process which makes a beverage stable, ie, unlikely to suffer physical, chemical or microbial change on the shelf at a later time. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Stags Leap District, Napa Valley
This sub-AVA of the Napa Valley is located just northeast of the town of Napa. Along with the Rutherford AVA, Stags Leap District is considered to produce the best Cabernet Sauvignon in the Napa Valley. This district also produces America’s most best Petite Sirah, as well as outstanding Merlot and Bordeaux blends.

Stags Leap wineries are known for producing more restrained Cabernet Sauvignon than their warmer neighbors to the north. In 1976, Warren Winiarski’s Stags Leap Cellars won the Paris Blind Tasting with new California Cabernets pitted against historic Bordeaux. Probably no other event catapulted California Cabernet to international fame as much as this remarkable tasting.

Stags Leap Wine is produced in a moderate climate. A row of hills along the western border acts as a funnel that draws wind up from the San Pablo Bay. This cools the region and increases acidity in the grapes. At the same time, most Stags Leap vineyards are on western facing slopes and exposed to late afternoon sunshine. This ensures ripe fruit and developed tannins. Stags Leap's volcanic terrain is a major reason why Stags Leap Cabernet Sauvignon is known as, “an iron fist in a velvet glove.” (Wine/Appellations)
Staling is another term for oxidation of beer from aging. Staling results in a wet cardboard characteristic, among other off flavors. (Beer/Chemistry & Flaws)
Stalks is the word in every English speaking country but America for "stems." In the U.S., stalks usually means the big stuff (like corn stalks). But in England, stalks can be little, too. Grape stems are grape stalks and an American "stemmy" tasting wine is a "stalky" tasting wine in England. See stemmy. (Wine/Other)
See stemmy. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
Standard Mead
Standard meads are meads of average alcoholic strength. Alcohol by volume ranges from 7.5-14% (Mead/Classification & Attributes)
A stein is a mug, traditionally earthenware, used to drink beer from. (Beer/Service)
The Stellenbosch wine zone, is located in the province of Western Cape in South Africa, about 30 miles from Cape Town. Along with the Paarl and Franschhoek Valleys, it is part of the Cape Winelands, one of the largest growing areas of the country. As this area is near the South Atlantic Ocean, it has a maritime climate, with fog and ocean breezes moderating temperatures. This is a perfect site for whites and Sauvignon Blanc from Stellenbosch has become famous for its lime and melon fruit along with its grassy characteristics; the wines have razor-sharp acidity and excellent varietal purity.

However, Cabernet Sauvignon is the most widely planted variety in Stellenbosch and it performs extremely well on the granite and sandstone soils. Another famous red from this area is Pinotage, one of the country's most famous wines. A local cross between Pinot Noir and Cinsault, Pinotage has medium weight tannins along with the fruitiness of Pinot Noir; most versions are aged in small oak barrels. Other top wines from Stellenbosch include Chardonnay, Shiraz and Chenin Blanc. (Wine/Appellations)
Stemmy is the taste sensation of mixed "green and bitter" caused by the wine having been fermented in the presence of too many stems. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
Stems are the rachis, or skeletal remains of a grape bunch or cluster after the grapes have been removed. Often during grape crushing the rachis gets broken, allowing bits of stem to remain in the must during fermentation. These bits of stem make up part of the cap in a red fermenter and part of the pomace after the new wine is drained from the tank. Generally, the stems in a fermentation are undesirable because they can supply "bitter" tannin to the liquid. This type of bitterness is difficult to remove by fining. See stalks. (Wine/Other)
Still Wine
Still wine is wine which is not sparkling, ie, does not contain significant carbon dioxide in solution. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Stomata are tiny openings on the undersides of grape leaves through which air and water pass into, and out of, the leaf. (Wine/Other)
Straight is a labeling term on used on whiskies of the United States. These are cereal grain whiskies which do not exceed 40% alcohol by volume and have been aged for at least two years.
When the term is used in regards to the service of spirits, straight is akin to the term neat and implies whiskey without ice or mixers. (Spirits/Service Classification & Attributes)
Stuck Fermentation
Stuck fermentation is the term for a fermentation which stops prematurely and refuses to start up again even though fermentable sugar still remains in the liquid. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Styrian Aurora
Also known as "Styrian Aurora" and "Super Styrian", a general-purpose hop similar to Styrian Golding used for a wide variety of styles. Noble-hop, spicy characteristics. Commercial examples of Styrian Aurora include: Sierra Nevada Porter, Hofstetten Hellerbock "Aurora". (Beer/Hops)
Südsteiermark is a wine district in Austria's Steiermark (Styria) region, in the country's southeastern reaches. This territory has a warm and humid Mediterranean climate; soils are a mix of sandstone, clay and limestone. The signature variety here is Sauvignon Blanc; examples are intense with strong acidity, excellent structure, distinct minerality and notable herbal qualities. These are classic cool-climate Sauvignon Blancs. Other varieties planted her include Muskateller, Welschriesling, Chardonnay (known here as Morillon) and Traminer. About 6000 acres of vines are planted here, most vineyards are on steep slopes that naturally limit yields. (Wine/Appellations)
See Chaptalization. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
SuIfur Dioxide
Sulfur dioxide is widely used in alcoholic beverage production as an anti-microbial and anti-oxidant additive. When present in excess, the beverage will smell something like freshly struck matches. Most yeasts produce sulfur dioxide on their own during growth and fermentation, so virtually all beverages contain traces of sulfur dioxide weather added on not. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms Chemistry & Flaws)
Suisun Valley
The Suisun Valley AVA is located in Solano County in northern California, east of Napa County. The appellation is very small, measuring only eight miles from north to south and three miles wide. Approximately 3000 of the valley's 15,000 acres are under vine; about twenty varieties are planted, such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Chardonnay, Zinfandel, Sauvignon Blanc and a small percentage of Roussanne, Pinot Gris and Sangiovese. Soils are primarily clay loam, with some sand; vineyards are planted on hillsides and at high elevations, up to 1200-1500 feet. There are a dozen or so wineries in Suisun Valley; some the fruit is also purchased by leading Napa and Sonoma wineries. (Wine/Appellations)
Sulfite is the dissolved form of sulfur dioxide. (Wine/Chemistry & Flaws)
Sulfuring Of Hops
Historically, sulfuring of hops is a way of protecting harvested hops from fungus by treating them with sulfur dioxide. (Beer/Production)
Sumadija is a Serbian wine region nestled between four large rivers- The Sava, the Danube, the West Morava, and the Great Morava. Vineyards are planted in the shallow valleys and hills that smaller rivers and ravines carve through. Climates here are moderate continental with a diverse range of micro climates scattered throughout the region.

Many indigenous grapes are grown including Ameničarka (Prokupac), Skadarka, Smederevka, Dinka, Žilavka and Začinak, black and white Tamjanika and Plovdina. International varieties are also cultivated- Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Pinot Noir, Gamay, and Cabernet Sauvignon. Sumadija is known for its white wines though Pinot Noir is proving to produce excellent wine in the region as well. (Wine/Appellations)
Finishing hop with characteristic apricot and melon aromas, along with hints of grass, peach, and passion fruit. Similar to Saaz, but less spicy. Used in IPAs, Belgian-style Ales, and wheat beers. Commercial examples of Summer include: Bridge Road Summer Single Hop IPA. (Beer/Hops)
Primarily a bittering hop but with citrus aromas of orange, tangerine, pink grapefruit as well as anise, incense, and pepper. Used in IPAs and Imperial IPAs, but also Barley Wine, Stouts, etc. Similar to Columbus, Simcoe, and Amarillo. Commercial examples of Summit include: Oskar Blues Gubna, Green Flash Palate Wrecker. (Beer/Hops)
Super Alpha
Also known as "Dr. Rudi", this dual-purpose hop provides a resinous character of herbal pine and lemongrass, with citric and floral aromas. Used primarily in lagered beers when a "New Zealand" character is desired. Similar to Green Bullet. (Beer/Hops)
Super Pride
Primarily a bittering hop, but with subtle resin & fruit aromas. Used in Australian lagered beers and IPAs. Similar to Pride of Ringwood. (Beer/Hops)
Sur Lies
Sur lies is a French term meaning that the beer or wine was held in contact with yeast lees longer than usual in aging and processing. The result is often a beverage with a pleasant yeastiness and more complexity (though sometimes more oxidized and bacterial) than ordinary. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Swan Hill
Swan Hill is a region that straddles the border of New South Wales and Victoria in the arid west and relies on irrigation from the Murray River for production. It is often thought of in conjunction with the massive Murray-Darling district, located just to its west. Vineyards are generally located on the alluvial benchlands of the river and the hot, arid climate produces consistent crops of classic Australian grapes, with an emphasis on Chardonnay. (Wine/Appellations)
Swan Valley
The Swan Valley lies just north of the city of Perth, the capital of Western Australia that is often referred to as the world's most isolated city. This was the first region planted by settlers in the mid-1800s and was responsible for the vast majority of Western Australia's wine production until development exploded in the cooler regions surrounding Margaret River some three hours to the south.

Vineyards here are planted along the Swan River in an effort to mitigate the intense heat and sunshine. Breezes from the Indian Ocean also help, but the region is known for producing weighty, hearty wines. Chenin Blanc and Chardonnay are often aged in oak and Shiraz typically has a good deal of heft. Unsurprisingly, dessert and fortified wines are also a key part of Swan River production. Houghton is the region's oldest and largest winery, having produced its first wines in 1859. (Wine/Appellations)
Swartland, located 40 miles north of Cape Town in South Africa, is one of the country’s finest wine regions. This is a hot dry climate, and many plantings are alberello, or bush vine, to protect against the extreme sun. Soils are a mix of shale and granite.

Leading varieties here include Pinotage, Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz for reds, with Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc and Sauvignon Blanc being the top white varieties. The Cabernet Sauvignons, more in the style of a New World Red, are rich, ripe, forward wines with plush fruit and sleek tannins. These are some of the country’s finest wines. The Syrahs show similar richness and ripeness; pair these wines with roasts meats and game. The Sauvignon Blancs offer excellent varietal grassy notes as well as ripe pear and melon fruit; these are ideal with shellfish.

While there are a few values among the wines of Swartland, the best reds are priced at $40 and up. While these offerings are well structured for a decade or more of cellaring, it remains to be seen if these wines will be a success in America and other export markets. (Wine/Appellations)
Sweet is the taste sensation of sugar. Several things other than sugar can combine to make a beverage taste "sweet." For example, one drink may taste sweet in comparison with another if it simply contains less acid. Alcohol in a totally dry beverage often gives the drink a sweetish taste, as if sugar had been added. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
Sweet Pomace
Sweet pomace is a term for solid grape residue after the juice is drained off, but prior to fermentation. It is primarily composed of skins, stems and seeds. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Sylvaner. (also spelled Silvaner) is a white wine grape variety grown in Franconia and other regions of Germany, and also in Austria, Alsace, the western U.S., Australasia, South Africa, and other areas of eastern Europe. It often produces somewhat innocuous wines, though can be thought of as a blank canvas to express terroir. It is fully capable of producing elegant wines. Sylvaner is best with light dishes of trout, white meats and white sauces. (Wine/Grapes)
Syrah - also known as Shiraz, especially in Australia - is a red wine with rich, zesty plum and blackberry fruit along with a light spicy, sometimes peppery quality. The grape has light to medium tannins, meaning lighter versions are drinkable upon release. This has certainly helped this wine's popularity in the United States.

Full-bodied versions, such as Côte-Rôtie from France's Rhone Valley, are intense, deeply concentrated wines that need many years to round out; these are generally at their best seven to ten years after the vintage and can drink well for 20 years plus from the best vintages.

Recommended foods with Syrah include most red meats, game and barbecued foods. (Wine/Grapes)