Dai Ginjo
Dai Ginjo is sake with rice polished at least 50% (50% remaining) and has some distilled alcohol added. This is often considered "Ultra-Premium" sake. (Sake/Classification & Attributes)
Dai Ginjo or Daiginjo is a term often seen on high-quality sakes. Daiginjo is sake that has at least 50% of rice hull polished away (Sake/Classification & Attributes)
Pronounced ‘Dye-Ker-Ree’, this drink bears a close relationship to the Canchanchara, a 19th century Cuban blend of rum, lemon, honey and water, but the Daiquiris creation is credited to Jennings Stockton Cox, an American engineer. (Spirits/Cocktails)
The Daisy cocktail has undergone a lot of tweaking over the years. The essential DNA of the Daisy involves adding a little soda water to a Sour (spirit, citrus, sweetener). Beyond that, though, you can take some liberties. Jerry Thomas called for shaved ice; Savoy, for cracked. Any number of base spirits have been used as a foundation, and depending on which source you read, the finished drink should be poured into a cocktail glass, pewter mug, Julep cup, large goblet or glass highball. Earlier recipes include orange cordial, but by the early 20th century, grenadine had become the traditional sweetening agent. All versions, however, agree that a Daisy should be cold, refreshing and garnished with seasonal fruit. The following recipe is a good compromise between older and more modern versions. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Danube River Plains
The Danube Plain is one of five wine regions in the country of Bulgaria; it is also referred to as the Danube River Plains appellation. It is located in northern Bulgaria, along the south banks of the Danube River. The areas has a continental climate with warm to very hot summer days. The red grape Gamza, also known as Kadarka, has been historically important in this region; the grape produces wines with rich tannins. Other varieties grown in the Danube Plain region include Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Chardonnay, Muscat Ottonel and Pamid, a red grape that was once widely planted here, but today is becoming quite rare; the grape has low acidity and produced light wines meant for youthful consumption. (Wine/Appellations)
Located in northern Portugal, Dão is one of the most famous wine appellations in the country; it is named for the nearby Dão River.

While this is a warm climate, the Dão is not as hot as several other wine areas in Portugal, thanks to nearby mountain peaks that have a moderating effect on temperatures. This permits balanced acidity in the red grapes, which are dominant; these include varieties such as Touriga Nacional (likely native to this region) and Tinta Roriz.

Here in the Dão, these varieties are used for the production of powerful, mineral-forward, dry red wines. The leading white variety is Encruzado, used to produce crisp, fragrant wines or sometimes age-worthy, barrel-fermented, Burgundian-style wines. There are also rosés made from the red varieties; a few are notable, but most are rather simple and sweet. Pair the dry reds with grilled meats, game and aged cheeses. Prices range from $10 and under to $50 and above. (Wine/Appellations)
Dark & Stormy
This classic highball is a branded cocktail trademarked by Gosling Brothers Ltd of Bermuda. It’s a delicious combination of rich rum and zippy ginger beer. Legally one must use Gosling Black Seal rum and Gosling Ginger Beer (Spirits/Cocktails)
De Chaunac
De Chaunac is a French-American hybrid wine grape named for a pioneer winemaker from eastern Canada. De Chaunac wines can be very good, or easily forgotten, depending on where and when the grapes were grown. (Wine/Grapes)
Decanting is the act of pouring wine carefully from a bottle in which loose sediment would otherwise become stirred up. After decanting, (carefully pouring off the clear wine until only the sediment remains behind), the sediment can be washed out of the bottle. Then the decanted wine can be returned to the clean bottle for serving. Decanting is most often done within 1 hour of serving, and usually for old wines only. Bottled wine rarely throws a sediment until well aged and young wines therefore do not need to be decanted, though many choose to do so for the effects of "breathing" or aeration. (Wine/Service)
A decanter is any glass or crystal flask designed to hold decanted wine and to be used as a server. In decanting, the wine is carefully poured from the original bottle into the decanter and from the decanter into the glasses on the table. Dessert wines (but never table wines) are often stored in decanters for many days or weeks at room temperature. These dessert wines will keep because of their high alcohol content and oxygen-resistant flavors and can be served directly from the decanter on the living room shelf more or less at will. (Wine/Service)
Decoction mash
Decoction mash is a multi-step mashing technique that involves drawing off a portion of the wort at each step and boiling it to raise the temperature of the mash for the next step (vs. Infusion). (Beer/Production)
Disgorgement is the act of removing the frozen plug of ice (containing spent yeast) from a champagne bottle after the riddling. Degorgement takes place on the bottling line just prior to adding dosage and the the final corking of the finished bottle of champagne. See Dosage. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Delaware is an American hybrid wine grape grown throughout the eastern U.S. and used for dry, sweet, icewines, and sparkling wines. These wines are considerably less "foxy" compared to other American varieties. Delaware is also very pleasant to eat as a table grape even though the berry size is small and the grape contains seeds. (Wine/Grapes)
Delle Venezie IGP
The Delle Venezie IGP, now used interchangeably with Delle Venezie IGT, is not about the city of Venice, but rather the three historical Venices, which today represent three bordering northern Italian regions; Veneto, Trentino-Alto Adige and Friuli. These territories are cool to moderate climate, ideal for crisp whites as well as medium-bodied reds with good acidity and light herbal notes. This IGP is a catch all zone for numerous inexpensive wines, most notably simple Pinot Grigio that is sold on American retail shelves for $15 and under. Other wines include Chardonnay, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. (Wine/Appellations)
Delle Venezie IGT
The Delle Venezie IGT designation covers three northern Italian regions, including all of Veneto, all of Friuli and the province of Trento in the region of Trentino-Alto Adige. A great deal of wine, be it a simple sparkling wine, a light Pinot Grigio or numerous dry reds such as Merlot or Cabernet Sauvignon is labeled with this term.

The Delle Venezie designation encompasses a wide territory, so while there are many whites and reds that are rather simple, a few top reds can age well for up to a decade. These are cool climate zones, so acidity is usually very good, as the wines are more restrained than most versions from New World lands (such as California or Chile). Look for the majority of these wines to sell for less than $20 on retail shelves. (Wine/Appellations)
Demi is a French combining form used with a noun to denote "half" of whatever it is. (Wine/Other)
A demijohn is a fairly large glass bottle or jug, sometimes enclosed inside a reed, plastic or wood wrapper to prevent breakage. The size is usually about five gallons but can be as large as ten. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Demi-sec is a French Champagne term signifying that the product is medium-sweet. Literally it translates to "half-dry". (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
See Hydrometer. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Derwent Valley
The Derwent valley follows the course of the Derwent river running to the northwest of Hobart and in fairly close proximity to the capital. Vineyards are being planted on the alluvial benchlands of the river and in the western hills, where north-facing slopes allow for maximum exposure to the sun. This is a cool climate region, dominated by clean, crisp whites, and it is developing a reputation as a potential source for very high quality Pinot Noir. Time will tell. A small number of large producers are responsible for 75% of the region's output and plantings are continuing at a brisk rate. The similar, and technically distinct, Coal River Valley is also being developed just to the east along the similarly oriented Coal River. (Wine/Appellations)
Dessert Wine
Dessert wines are any of a class of sweet wines, often fortified to higher alcohol content, which are served with desserts or as after dinner drinks. Common dessert wines are Ports, Sherries, Muscatel, Madeira, Tokay and Sauternes. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Diacetyl is the name for a production or packaging derived fault that can cause aromas or flavors of movie popcorn butter or butterscotch. The potential cause of this fault is usually microbial contamination, improper maturation, or unclean draft lines. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms Chemistry & Flaws)
Diamond is an American hybrid grape, used both for white wine and for table grapes. It is also called Moore's Diamond for the hybridizer, Jacob Moore, who produced the variety. (Wine/Grapes)
Diamond Mountain, Napa Valley
The Diamond Mountain AVA is located on the west side of Napa Valley in the Mayacamas Mountain range, on the border with Sonoma County. The name of the district comes from the fact that the volcanic soils found here contain small piece of glass and quartz that "shine like diamonds." Vineyards are planted between 400 to 670 feet, meaning yields are limited and temperatures, while warm in the summer, are never too hot; there are approximately 500 acres of vines. Red varieties, especially Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Franc, dominate the plantings. While these wines are mountain wines, meaning they have firm tannins and the structure for a decade or more of aging, the Diamond Mountain reds are not as intense or as tannic as examples from other Napa mountain districts. The best wines, in the $50-$75 range (with a very few a touch higher) offer ripe black currant fruit along with a distinct mineral note in the finish. (Wine/Appellations)
Diana is an American hybrid wine grape used for white wines in the eastern wine regions of the U.S. (Wine/Grapes)
Digestivi are alcoholic after-dinner drinks, often bitter, that are said to aid digestion. In French the term is called Digestif. (Spirits/Classification & Attributes)
Dimethyl Sulfide
Dimethyl Sulfide, also known as DMS, is the name of a common production-derived beer flaw that can cause aromas or flavors of creamed corn, cabbage, cooked vegetables, or oysters. Potential causes of this fault include not achieving a full boil, not boiling long enough, coling wort too slowly, or bacterial infection. (Wine/Chemistry & Flaws)
Dionysus is the Greek god of wine and revelry. See Bacchus. (Wine/People and Places)
Dirty Banana
What could be better than a creamy frozen adult beverage. Banana and coffee flavors combine in this icy rum-based treat. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Dirty Martini
The dirty martini is a classic, simple martini riff with a briny appeal. Olive juice softens the alcohol and gives the cocktail a savory and fun twist. (Spirits/Cocktails)
See Degorgement. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
When applied to alcoholic beverages, distillation is the process of separating the constituents of a liquid through selective evaporation. Since water and alcohol boil as different temperatures, this process essentially separates alcohol and other substances from water. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
While Piedmont is home to a number of powerful reds made from the Nebbiolo grape, Dolcetto is one of the region’s most charming everyday reds. The grape’s name literally means “little sweet one,” which has not helped sales, as many believe it to be a sweet red wine. However it is a dry red; the sweet terminology refers to the young, ripe fruit, with flavors of black raspberry and cranberry that burst forth in the aromas and on the palate. Tannins are moderate, so this is a medium-bodied red to be enjoyed in its youth, generally from two to four years, although a few examples can drink well for a decade, especially those from the Dogliani area.

Dolcetto is best paired with lighter pastas, salumi, chicken in a red wine preparation as well as lighter pork and veal dishes. (Wine/Grapes)
Dolcetto d'Alba
Dolcetto d’Alba is a red wine made entirely from the Dolcetto variety, planted in several communes near the city of Alba in southern Piedmont. The wine must be 100% Dolcetto; a superiore version has a slightly higher minimum alcohol content (12.5%, as opposed to 11.5%). As with other Dolcetto wines from Piedmont, Dolcetto d’Alba is approachable when young, with forward fruit flavors of cranberry, raspberry and plum.

Most examples are unoaked and are consumed within the first two to three years of the vintage, although the finest versions drink well for up to a decade. Dolcetto d’Alba is a popular wine for lunch with pastas and lighter red meats. (Wine/Appellations)
Dolcetto d'Asti
Dolcetto d’Asti is one of several DOCs (or DOP, if you will) that covers wines produced from the Dolcetto grape in Piedmont. Dolcetto d’Asti covers Dolcetto wines made in the province of Asti, in southeastern Piedmont. The wines are generally not aged in oak, have fruit aromas of plum and cranberry with moderate acidity and tannins. These are light to medium-bodied, meant for early consumption; they are often served at lunch with simple pastas or antipasti.

As Barbera is a more important variety in the Asti province, Dolcetto d'Asti has not gained the recognition of other examples of Dolcetto, such as Dolcetto d'Alba or Dogliani, so it is rarely seen outside its immediate zone. (Wine/Appellations)
Dolcetto di Diano d'Alba
Diano d'Alba is a hilltop village just to the north of Barolo. This small area is renowned for producing varietally intense and concentrated versions of Dolcetto. In recognition of this fact, Dolcetto di Diano d'Alba became a DOCG in 2010. Some 650 acres are devoted to the grape and this produces about 60,000 cases of wine per year.

Dolcetto vineyards here are often older in age and also planted on the most favorable sites. Indeed there are 75 specified "Sori" vineyards in the region, which can be featured on the label. In the Piemontese dialect Sori refers to a vineyard with a coveted southern exposure. This makes a big difference in such a marginal northern climate as it makes for many more sunshine hours over a growing season.

Dolcetto is native to Piedmont, where its name means "little sweet one." It is typically a fresh grapey wine released soon after the harvest and meant to be consumed in its youth. Dolcettos are Piedmont’s answer to Beaujolais, though somewhat firmer of structure and with higher acidity and very mild tannins. Dolcetto in Diano tends to be several degrees more serious; however, much like the best of the Beaujolais Crus. (Wine/Appellations)
Dom Perignon
Dom Pierre Perignon was a Benedictine monk, and is often called the "father of Champagne." He was cellar master at the Benedictine Abbey of Hautvillers in the late 1600's and early 1700's. According to legend, Dom Perignon was first to trap the CO2 produced by secondary fermentation of table wines and keep it in the wine. He is said to have uttered, "come quickly, I'm drinking stars" or something similar after the experience of his first taste. It's a great story. The problem is, there is nothing historical to back this story up, though there is evidence he made some important contributions to winemaking techniques around the 1670s. (Wine/Other)
Domaine is a term used on both German and French labels meaning "a wine estate." Now, it is also used in the U.S. as part of the names for some wineries. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Door County
Door County is located in northeastern Wisconsin; on state maps, it can be easily located, as it is the small tip jutting out from the mainland. The Wisconsin Ledge AVA is situated in Door County; this is suitable for grape growing, despite its far northern location, as area vineyards on the eastern slopes of the AVA receive warming breezes from Lake Michigan. Soils are a mix of gravel, sand and clay; of the 3800 acres of land, 320 are planted to vines. There are only three wineries in the area, working primarily with French hybrid varieties such as Marechal Foch, Niagara and Frontenac. (Wine/Appellations)
Dosage is the few ounces of wine, often sweetened, which is added to each bottle of Champagne after disgorging to make up for the liquid volume lost by disgorging. See Liqueur d'Expedition. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
The taste experience of a great beverage should have a beginning, middle, and end. When there is a noticeable lack of flavor on the mid-palate, a beverage is sometimes said to "Doughnut" or be "Doughnutty". (Wine,Beer,Spirits/Tasting Terms)
The Douro, located in northeast Portugal, is world famous for its Port wines, some of the most collectible wines made anywhere in the world. Today, however, their table reds and whites are starting to gain some popularity as well; this is as it should be as production of these wines is approximately on the same level as that of Port. The region is named for the local Douro River, and is sometimes referred to as Alto Douro. There are three sub-regions of the Douro DOC: Baixo Corgo, the farthest west; Alto Corgo or Cima Corgo and Douro Superior. Rainfall varies, with Baixo Corgo receiving the most, and Douro Superior, the least, as conditions here are desert like. Of the three zones, Baixo Corgo has the most vineyards, while most examples of Port emerge from the Alto Corgo zone.

Port is made from several local varieties (as many as thirty are allowed), most notably: Touriga Nacional, Touriga Franca, Tinta Roriz and Tinto Cao. Of course, Port, very deep in color and somewhat heavy with alcohols in the %18-$20 range are the most famous wines of the Douro, but lately, a great deal of attention has been paid to the dry reds, often made with the same varieties as in Port, such as Touriga Nacional. These reds have deep color with black fruit and mocha flavors; acidity is somewhat low, so these are meant for early to mid-term consumption. White wines are produced from varieties such as Malvasia Fina, Moscatel and Gouveio; these whites are often quite aromatic, with tropical fruit perfumes, are are sometimes aged in oak; they are meant for early consumption. (Wine/Appellations)
French term meaning "sweet." (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Downy Mildew
Downy milder is a fungal disease of grape vines which kills the affected tissue. The disease is native to eastern North America but has spread to Europe and most other regions of the world. It does not occur in California because of the low humidity and lack of summer rains. (Wine/Other)
Draft Beer
Draft beer is beer dispensed from a pressurized vessel (keg), more correctly called "draught beer". (Beer/Classification & Attributes)
Drain Hopper
A drain hopper is a crush tank fitted with a screen to make free run juice separate quickly from the skins and stems in freshly crushed white grape must. By closing the drain valve for a specified time, the winemaker can "macerate" or allow contact between juice and solids for some varieties, if desired. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Drained Pomace
Drained pomace is the solid left over after the juice has been drained off after crushing. This pomace is primarily skins with a small amount of stem bits. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Draught Beer
See draft beer. (Beer/Classification & Attributes)
Dried Malt Extract
Dried malt extract is powdered barley malt extract made by spraying the liquid through an atomizer into a heated chamber to eliminate moisture. It is commonly used in homebrewing. (Beer/Ingredients)
When used as a subjective tasting term, the word dry implies a lack of perceived sweetness in a beverage. TechnicalIy, a dry wine retains Iittle or no sugar after fermentation. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
Dry Creek Valley
Dry Creek Valley is located in north central Sonoma County, about an hour's drive north of San Francisco; the town of Healdsburg is situated near the southern reaches of this valley. The wine zone is more of less a west to east trail that follows Dry Creek, ending up at Healdsburg; the topography is 16 miles long by two miles wide. This is a slightly warm climate, with moderating fog as well as breezes from the Pacific Ocean, some twenty miles to the west. There are 9000 acres of vineyards, with Zinfandel and Sauvignon Blanc being the principal Varieties, along with Cabernet Sauvignon, Petite Syrah, Syrah and Barbera.

It is Zinfandel that is the signature wine of Dry Creek Valley, especially wines made from vines that are more than one hundred years old. IN fact, Dry Creek Valley has more old vine plantings of Zinfandel (more than 25 years old) than anywhere else in California. These wines have a great deal of red and black spice, along with a peppery quality; some are even a bit rustic, akin to some traditional Italian wines. Alcohols are between 15% and 17% and these wines often age surprisingly well, as long as twelve to twenty years after the harvest.

Sauvignon Blanc, labeled by some local producers as Fumé Blanc, is the top white wine from this zone. There are many similarities to the Loire style of Sauvignon Blanc (Sancerre, Pouilly-Fumé) with these Dry Creek wines, as the wines have subtle grassy, herbal notes along with tangy acidity (like a Pouilly-Fumé, these wines are great with goat cheese!).

Quality is very high for Dry Creek Valley wines as a rule. Look for prices in the $15-$25 range for Sauvignon Blancs and $16-$25 for classic Zinfandels, while some special old vine release may cost as much as $40 or so a bottle; the wines are worth every penny. (Wine/Appellations)
Dry Pomace
Dry pomace is the solid left over from draining the new wine off after fermentation. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Dry Yeast
Dry yeast are pure yeast strains that are dried for preservation for future use. (Beer/Ingredients)
Dry-hopping is the process of adding hops to beer, typically in secondary fermentation, to increase hop aroma. (Beer/Production)
Duche d'Uzes
Duche d'Uzes is a small appellation in the far western reaches of the France’s Rhone Valley, just west of the Côtes du Rhone. It was approved as an appellation in 2012, although vines have been planted here for almost 2000 years. Before the upgrade to an AOC wine, Duche d’Uzes was listed as a Vin de Pays.

This is a Mediterranean climate; warm temperatures assure fruit-dominant wines, while local maritime influence helps the wines have good levels of acidity. Soils are a mix of several types, including sandstone, marl and limestone.

The typical Rhone varieties are used here for reds, rosés and whites; Cinsault, Grenache, Mourvedre, Syrah, et al for the reds, Grenache principally for the rosés, and Viognier and Grenache Blanc for the whites. 55% of total production of the 700 acres planted is split between 55% red, 25% white and 20% rosé. (Wine/Appellations)
A wine that is dumb is one that is in a phase of muted aromas and flavors. It is a transitory phase that can happen in ageable wines in between fresh and fruity youth and expressive and developed maturity. During this period wine can taste dull and lifeless, yet it is expected to improve dramatically. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
Dundee Hills
The Dundee Hills are contained within the Willamette Valley AVA. The region is located 28 miles southwest of Portland and 40 miles inland from the Pacific Ocean. Rising above the low, flat floors of the surrounding Willamette and Chehalem Valleys, the Dundee Hills offer spectacular views, including Mt. Hood and Mt. Jefferson’s majestic snowy peaks.

Winemaker David Lett planted the first Pinot noir in the Dundee Hills in 1965, naming it The Eyrie Vineyard. Soon after, Dick Erath, the Sokol Blosser family, and other winemakers cleared south-facing slopes to plant many of Oregon’s first vineyards. They whole-heartedly believed this area would one day be an important cool-climate winegrowing region. It didn’t take long for the world to discover Dundee Hills and Oregon, after the relatively unknown Eyrie Pinot Noir placed among the top three wines in the 1979 Gault-Millau French Wine Olympiades, beating out more famous French labels. Today, the area remains home to many of Oregon’s modern pioneer winemakers who continue to successfully grow and make premium wine. The appellation was approved in November 2005.

The Dundee Hills area is effectively an island protected from great climatic variations by surrounding geographic features. The Coast Range to the west lessens the effects of the Pacific Ocean’s heavy rains and windstorms, causing a rain shadow over the Dundee Hills area. The region receives just 30 to 45 inches of annual precipitation, most of which falls in the winter months outside of the growing season. Because of their slope and elevation, Dundee Hills vineyards benefit from warmer nights and less frost and fog than the adjacent valley floors.

The region is known for its rich, red volcanic Jory soil, which was formed from ancient volcanic basalt and consists of silt, clay, and loam soils. They typically reach a depth of four to six feet and provide excellent drainage for superior quality wine grapes.

The viticultural region consists of a single, continuous landmass that rises above the surrounding Willamette Valley floor and is defined by the 200-foot contour line to the AVA’s highest peak of 1,067 feet. The area comprises a north-south spine with ridges, as well as small valleys on its east, south, and west sides. Dundee Hills is part of a North Willamette Valley hill chain that developed as a result of intense volcanic activity and the collision of the Pacific and North American plates. The soil is typically volcanic over sedimentary sandstone. (Wine/Appellations)
Dunder is the leftover solids from a batch of Jamaican or Jamaican-style rum. Similar to sourdough bread starter, these solids are used for each subsequent batch of rum as a yeast-starter adding unique flavors and aromas. (Spirits/Production)
Dunnigan Hills
The Dunnigan Hills sits in gently rolling hills in northwest Yolo County and has a Mediterranean style climate. These climactic conditions, combined with wonderful air-drainage, make the appellation less frost prone in early spring and favor the grapes with cooler summer days than the rest of Sacramento Valley. However, it’s important to note that days are still very hot here.

R. H. Phillips, the AVA’s pioneering winery, has a 1,500-acre vineyard and a state of the art winemaking facility. The winery is dedicated to continuing research to preserve the quality of fruit during harvest and fermentation. All wines made at R.H. Phillips are cold fermented and many of the grapes are actually harvested at night to minimize time in the hot sun and oxidation. In addition to the very successful classic French varietals, considerable work is also being done with southern Rhone varietals, which seem to be gaining substantial recognition. (Wine/Appellations)
The Durbanville wine of origin area is located about a twenty minute's drive from Cape Town. Most of the vineyards are situated on rolling hillsides, with plantings at 1000 feet above sea level. The proximity to the ocean is ideal for well structured wines with good natural acidity; leading varieties include Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Shiraz; Bordeaux blends, aged in barriques are a popular item for many local producers. There are currently a dozen wineries located in the Durbanville area. (Wine/Appellations)
Dutch West India Company
The Dutch West India Company is the company which started America's first commercial brewery, in Manhattan, 1632. (Beer/People and Places)