La Mancha
The La Mancha DO, near the city of Toledo in central Spain, is one of the world's largest wine districts, with a total of more than 400,000 acres of vineyards. Whites and reds are produced here, with varying quality and style, from simple whites to more distinguished reds. Many producers, instead of making table wine, produce brandy from the ubiquitous Airen variety, which has become somewhat of a symbol for this zone. Quality white wines do exist, however, made form varieties such as Sauvignon Blanc, Gewurztraminer, Torrontes and Chardonnay. As this is a warm region, these wines are quite rich, though sometimes lack in finesse. Leading reds include Tempranillo, Monastrell, Pinot Noir, Merlot and Petit Verdot; again due to the very warm growing season, these reds are generally forward and meant for young consumption. The most promising reds have been those produced from Tempranillo; the riserva versions offer excellent complexity with round tannins and a lengthy finish; similar in style to a Riserva Rioja, some have achieved a similar quality level. Overall, this is a region with mixed quality; look for moderate prices and rich, ripe fruit in most of the wines. (Wine/Appellations)
La Rioja
La Rioja is a wine region in the west of Argentina in the foothills of the Andes lying to the north of Mendoza and San Juan. This was one of the first regions of Argentina planted to wine grapes in the 1500s by settlers from the region of the same name in Northern Spain.

It is particularly mountainous and the cool climate has given the region a justified reputation for producing some of the finest Torrontes in Argentina. It is a quality source of everyday wines with a good price-to-value ratio. (Wine/Appellations)
Labrusca is a species of grape native to eastern North America. They are the source of many grape cultivars such as the Concord. They contrast with the more familiar vinifera varieties of Europe. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms Grapes)
Lactic Acid
Lactic acid is a natural organic acid which occurs in many foods. In wine, it exists only in trace amounts unless the beverage has undergone a malo-lactic secondary fermentation. In certain circumstances the presence of lactic acid is a fault. It can lead to unpleasant aromas of sour milk or yogurt and is often caused by bacterial infection. (Wine/Chemistry & Flaws)
Lactobacillus is a bacteria that generates lactic acid in beer, contributing a clean, sour taste. (Beer/Production)
Lager is a beer brewed with Saccharomyces uvarum or "bottom fermenting" yeast, generally brewed at relatively lower temperatures than "Ales". (Beer/Classification & Attributes)
Lagering is a maturation of beer in cold temperatures typically performed with beers using lager yeast, altbiers, and kolsch. (Beer/Production)
Lake Chelan
The Lake Chelan appellation is a sub-region of the Columbia Valley, located in north-central Washington, about 112 miles east-northeast of the city of Seattle. It received official recognition in 2009. While the first plantings in the region date to 1891, the first modern vineyards were planted in 1998. Today, there are a bit less than 300 acres under vine.

The region is distinguished by its proximity to Lake Chelan. This 55-mile long glacial lake is nearly 1,500 feet deep, and the cold waters produce a lake effect that provides cooler summer days and warmer summer nights than surrounding regions. Additionally, the lake limits the danger of frost damage in winter, a not-insignificant problem in the Columbia Valley. The most widely planted grapes are Pinot Noir and Riesling, followed by Syrah, but there are over 20 varietals in the region as befits a still-youthful and experimental industry. (Wine/Appellations)
Lake County
Lake County is a giant (in area) AVA that comprises the northeast corner of the North Coast AVA. It is the county north of Sonoma and east of Mendocino. Lake County surrounds Clear Lake, the largest natural lake in California. The vineyards are planted throughout the county, from the agriculturally rich valley at 1,370 feet elevation (lake level), to the rocky red volcanic soil at more than 2,000 feet elevation around Mt. Konocti—a dormant volcano in the Pacific Rim chain.

These elevations provide cooler winter conditions and a later start to the growing season. Summer growing conditions are suitably warm to ripen the grapes and the elevation allows rapid cooling in the evening. Few grape pests can tolerate the altitude and cool climate. Lake County growers are committed to sustainable farming and participate in year long educational programs to this end.

Within Lake County, a total of 8,530 acres are planted to winegrapes. This is expected to double in the next few years, as many new vineyards are being planted. Cabernet Sauvignon is the most planted variety with 3,300 acres. Sauvignon Blanc is the second with 1,790 acres. Fourteen wineries are located in the region. About 20 out-of-county wineries purchase Lake County grapes from independent growers. (Wine/Appellations)
Lake Erie
The Lake Erie AVA runs through parts of three states: Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York State; it is one of nine AVAs within New York State. While there are more than 18,000 acres of grapes planted in this area; only a small percentage is devoted to premium wine, as Concord is far and away the most widely planted variety in this zone. In fact, the National Grape Cooperative that owns Welch's, is the largest grape company in the area. There is also a bit of Riesling, Pinot Noir and Gewurztraminer grown here as well as Seyval Blanc, Delaware and Chancellor. (Wine/Appellations)
Lake Erie North Shore
The Lake Erie North Shore appellation of Canada runs along, you guessed it, the north shore of Lake Erie, toward the western reaches of the lake; this is the southwestern extremity of the Ontario province. The appellation is almost completely surrounded by water; vineyards are planted on gentle slops, ranging from 600 to 750 feet. Soils are the result of glacial deposits, are well draining and consist of gravel, limestone bedrock and sandy loams. Temperatures are moderate and sunshine is abundant throughout much of the year. The most widely planted varieties are Riesling, Cabernet Franc and Merlot. (Wine/Appellations)
Lake Michigan Shore
The Lake Michigan Shore AVA is located in southwestern Michigan. This is the epicenter of Michigan viticulture, as over 90 percent of the state's vineyards are located here, with about 50 percent of the state's wines produced from this zone. This is a cool-moderate climate with a very long growing season, which ca be beneficial in case of spring frosts in particular years. Production is largely focused on fruit wine, although there is a variety of other products, ranging from Port, to sparkling wine (often made from Riesling) to dry and off-dry whites made from Traminette. (Wine/Appellations)
Lake Wisconsin
The Lake Wisconsin AVA is located in southwestern Wisconsin, a bit north of the city of Madison. This is a cold climate with brutal winters; this hybrid grapes, such as Marechal Foch and La Crosse are the leading varieties of this zone. While the entire AVA is more than 20,000 acres in size, only 20 acres are planted; most vineyards are situated between 800 to 900 feet above sea level. An interesting footnote to this zone is that the first grapevines were planted here in the 1840s by Agoston Haraszthy, who would go on to great fame with similar work in California. (Wine/Appellations)
Lalande de Pomerol
Lalande de Pomerol is a small area just north of Pomerol, a famed wine district located on the right bank of the Dordogne River in the Bordeaux region of southwest France. There are about 2600 acres of vines planted on soils of clay, gravel and sand, with the varieties being primarily Merlot and Cabernet Franc.

As Cabernet Sauvignon is not regularly part of the wines of Lalande de Pomerol, these wines have less of a tannic bite than many other Bordeaux reds, making them more accessible upon release. However, the top examples have the structure for aging for a decade or more.

The wines generally have flavors of red and black plum and cherry, as well as some distinctive red spice and notes of pepper, this emerging from the Cabernet Franc. As with all Bordeaux reds, these wines are best paired with rich red meats such as lamb and beef as well as game and aged cheeses. (Wine/Appellations)
Lambrusco is a red wine grape variety and also the name of the wine produced from the same grape. It is not to be confused with Labrusca (though it sometimes is). Produced in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy, Lambruscos are lightly sparkling red wines, usually sweet, light, intensley fruity and pleasant to drink. Lambrusco is used in four Italian DOCs (Wine/Grapes)
The Langhe is an expression used to describe the wider wine producing area with Alba and the Barolo and Barbaresco zones at its heart. Langhe was codified as a DOC in 1994 to cover wines produced outside one of the more prestigious sub-regions and for unusual varietals or blends within those regions.

Piedmont lacks an IGT designation, so in practice Langhe DOC is used in the area to cover international varietals such as Cabernet Sauvignon or Chardonnay. It can also be used for Nebbiolo that a producer does not want to include in their Barolo or Barbaresco bottlings. A significant amount of Arneis is also bottled using the designation. All told, nearly 4,000 acres produce 1.25 million cases per year of a wide range of reds and whites that will be labeled simply as "Langhe," with or without a varietal designation. (Wine/Appellations)
Langhe DOC
The Langhe DOC, established in 1994, covers wines made in the Langhe Hills, an area near the city of Alba. Most of the Langhe territory is located in the province of Alba, east of the Tanaro River; a small portion is in the province of Asti. The name comes from the Italian word for "tongue", as the district's shape slightly resembles a human tongue.

White and red wines can be labeled (Langhe Bianco, Langhe Rosso) and must contain 100% of the variety stated on the label. The most common of these is Langhe Nebbiolo, which originates form communes that produce Barolo and Barbaresco. Thus a Langhe Nebbiolo is a fine introduction to these two great wines, especially as the wine is more approachable as well as less expensive. Any white or red grape authorized for planting in the Langhe, be it a local variety such as Dolcetto or Arneis or even an international variety such as Chardonnay, can be labeled with the Langhe DOC designation. (Wine/Appellations)
Langhorne Creek
Langhorne Creek is one of the oldest wine regions in South Australia, being originally planted in the mid-1800s. It is technically a part of the Fleurieu zone, but it is not on the peninsula proper and is in fact just southeast of the city of Adeliade on the north shore of Lake Alexandria. The area is located on a flood plain and has alluvial soil. Many vineyards are watered by runoff from the Mount Lofty Ranges to the immediate east and this made the region attractive initially, given the general shortage of water in the area as a whole.

The climate is cooler than that of the Barossa, being moderated by its proximity to the lake and to the ocean. Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz dominate here, and combined, account for 70% of plantings. Several of the big players source grapes from the region and there are a handful of boutique producers that attract tourists from Adelaide. (Wine/Appellations)
Languedoc AOP
Languedoc is an appellation in the wine region of Languedoc-Roussillon in southwest France. Reds, rosés and whites are produced here; about 75% of the total production is red, while the remaining 25% is split between rosé and white.

This is a warm Mediterranean climate, with ample precipitation along with cooling maritime breezes. Soils vary from pebbles and sandstone to marl and clay, resulting in a fine land in which to grow numerous varieties. There are more than 50 different varieties; some of which are planted in tiny amounts. The most widely used are: Syrah; Grenache; Mourvedre, Carignan and Cinsault for the reds, with Grenache Blanc, Bourboulenc, Marsanne, Roussanne, Vermentino and Ugni Blanc for the whites.

Reds are medium-bodied, with distinct spice, excellent ripeness and good acidity. Most are meant for consumption within three to five years of their vintage, while the best drink well for up to a decade, and are best paired with red meats, dishes with mushrooms and game. Rosés work well with salads, Oriental cuisine and poultry, while the local whites, meant for youthful consumption, are a perfect match with shellfish.

Prices on the wines range from the mid-teens to the mid-20s, with a select few priced anywhere from $35 to $75. (Wine/Appellations)
Languedoc Rouge
Languedoc Rouge refers to red wines from the Languedoc wine region of southern France, on the border with the Mediterranean Sea. The Languedoc or Languedoc-Roussillon region is the largest in France, with more than 700,000 acres of vines planted. Vineyards are low lying, comprised of alluvia soils for plantings close to the sea, with inland vineyards having more chalk and gravel soils. The climate is warm and dry, with breezes from the Mediterranean. About 75% of Languedoc's wines are red; varieties include Mourvedre, Grenache, Syrah and Carignan, so-called Rhone varieties. There are both mono-varietal offerings as well as blends. These are generally medium-bodied wines with light herbal notes and moderate tannins; they stand up well to lighter game and meats and are fairly priced. (Wine/Appellations)
Last Word
The Last Word cocktail is a classic. It is believed to have been developed during Prohibition, and if such is the case it is one of the better drinks to come out of the "drought." The rest of the story says that it was developed at the Detroit Athletic Club. This is all according to Ted Saucier's Bottoms Up, and is quoted by Paul Clarke at The Cocktail Chronicles.

The recipe is fairly easy with equals parts of the four ingredients and one may think it to end up a convoluted mess of flavors. However, it is a spectacular drink and one that over the years has seen a few well deserved spotlights on cocktail menus. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Late Harvest
(Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Late Hopping
Late hopping is the process of adding hops toward the end of wort boiling, before fermentation, to increase hop aroma. (Beer/Production)
See Lazio. (Wine/Appellations)
Lazio DOC
Lazio IGT refers to a variety of wines from the central Italian region of Lazio; examples can be red, white, rosé, sparking or frizzante. Grapes used to produce such wines include Malvasia and Trebbiano for white, with Cesanese and Roscetto for red, while there is also a bit of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon as well.

As a Lazio IGT wine is not one of the 28 DOC wines of the region, nor one of the other three IGT selections from Lazio, this category can include light, sipping white wines (often produced from Trebbiano) or more complex whites, such as those made from the indigenous variety Roscettto. Rarely seen (currently, only two of the region’s producers works with this variety), a white made from Roscetto can be paired with richly flavored pastas or lighter seafood. Roscetto is also sometimes produced as in a passito style, a lush, sweet, dessert wine.

Reds have a similar stylistic variation; those made from Sangiovese tend to be light to medium-bodied, and are best paired with lighter pastas and meats, while the reds produced from Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot or the local Cesanese are richer on the palate, spicier (especially in the case of Cesanese) and work well with most red meats or aged cheeses. (Wine/Appellations)
Lazio Rosso Igt
The Lazio Rosso IGT indicates red wines from Lazio, a hilly region surrounding Rome. A very broad range of wines can be labeled as Lazio Rosso from dry to sweet. Most notable are the Lazio Rosso IGT wines that are made from international grape varieties. These are often blended much like Super Tuscans under the Toscana IGT designationand thus are often referred to as "Super Lazios". These super Lazios are a great match with hefty steaks with rosemary. (Wine/Appellations)
Leaf axil
The leaf axil is the acute angle between a vine shoot and a leaf stem or petiole extending from the shoot. Buds develop in these axils or "crotches" just above each leaf petiole. (Wine/Other)
Leafroll is a viral disease of grapevines in which the virus infection seals off the leaf petiole (stem) so that the sugars produced by the leaf through photosynthesis cannot be transported back into the vine. The leaves tend to curl downwards at the edges as the sugar accumulates. The leaf, in an effort to get rid of a problem, uses it to make red anthocyanin pigment and the leaf is seen to turn red as well as appearing rolled. Vines infected by these viruses have difficulty in ripening their fruit because much of the sugar the vine produces cannot be used by the vine where it needs it— in the fruit. Leafroll may not be a serious problem in varieties which ripen early but are grown in climates which provide a longer than needed season. But when the opposite is true, where the variety just barely ripens under normal conditions, then the infection by leafroll virus causes the crop never to fully ripen, with disastrous results to resulting wine quality. (Wine/Other)
Leaker is a term use to refer to a bottle of wine which has wine oozing or slowly dripping from the cork (as opposed to the more or less normal occurrence of the cork being mostly wet but without noticeable loss of wine volume). (Wine/Chemistry & Flaws)
Leelanau Peninsula
The Leelanau Peninsula AVA is located in northern Michigan, not far from the city of Traverse City; it is a bit south of the Upper Peninsula. As it is a peninsula, it is surrounded by water on three sides; the most notable body of water being Lake Michigan. It has a maritime, climate and local vintners take advantage of this by working with varieties such as Riesling (a common variety in other parts of Michigan as well), Chardonnay, Pinot Noir and Pinot Grigio. There are also plantings of hybrid varieties, such as Chambourcin and Marquette, while there are even a few classically made sparkling wines produced from Chardonnay, Pinot Noir and Pinot Blanc as well. (Wine/Appellations)
Lees are the sediment which settles to the bottom of the wine in a tank during processing. If primarily yeast, as from a fermentation, it is called "yeast lees;" if sediment from fining, it is called "fining lees." (Wine/Production)
Dual purpose hops with blackberry, orange, grapefruit, and "black currant" notes, floral & spicy. Used in multiple styles, particularly IPAs. Similar to Cluster, Galena, and Northern. (Beer/Hops)
Legs is a wine appreciation term used to describe the rivulets (or sheets, or "tears") of wine that decend the inner glass after swirling. A wine's body or viscosity can often by estimated by the way in which the legs fall. This phenomenon has to do with alcohol content and surface tension. A look at the legs will give you tips on the wine's nature in a dry wine, slow falling legs indicate a full-bodied-wine; quick-falling indicate a light wine. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
Lemberger is a varietal widely planted in Central Europe--particularly Austria, where it is known as blaufränkisch. The suffix "fränkisch" implies that the grape was originally of French origin; however, the varietal's true lineage is somewhat murky. Lemberger became somewhat of a darling to a handful of vintners in Washington state, as it is quite winter-hardy and offers a measure of insurance against the state's periodic harsh winter conditions, though today only 73 acres of Lemberger are planted in Washington. (Wine/Grapes)
Lemon Drop
Fresh ingredients make a world of difference in this classic 80’s vodka cocktail. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Aroma hop that exhibits a true lemon aroma along with slight melon, mint, and green tea notes. Best illustrated in IPAs and Saisons. Commercial examples of Lemondrop include: Founders Lemondrop IPA, Flying Dog Single Hop Imerial IPA (LemonDrop). (Beer/Hops)
Lenswood is a small sub-region within the Adelaide Hills to the east of the city of Adelaide. It is differentiated from the Adelaide Hills in general by having an even cooler mesoclimate and an elevation that attracts more rain and mist. Grapes here retain high levels of natural acidity and whites, Pinot Noir, and even sparkling wines have been the primary focus. Henschke, in particular, has been committed to the region and sources a number of their whites here. (Wine/Appellations)
Leyda Valley
Leyda Valley is one of Chile's coastal appellations; located about 50 miles west of Santiago, it contains some of the closest vineyards in the country to the Pacific Ocean, many within ten miles. This is an up and coming appellation of Chile, as several producers in the country, attracted to the proximity of the land to the ocean, have been purchasing land here over the paste ten to fifteen years. Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay are the starts here, with some Pinot Noir; the cold climate gives the Sauvignon Blancs great intensity and structure. A typical Leyda Valley Sauvignon Blanc offers rich herbal notes along with bright melon fruit, while Pinot Noirs have a strawberry and dark cherry component. (Wine/Appellations)
Liebfraumilch is the name for semi-sweet white wines from the German regions of Rheinhessen, Palatinate, Rheingau and Nahe. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
The term light is used to describe a wines body, flavor or alcohol content. It is the opposite of big or full. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
Limari Valley
Limari Valley is located in northwestern Chile, some 200 miles north of Santiago. Due to its proximity to the Pacific Ocean, this is a cool climate region and white varieties, especially Chardonnay, are ideal for this area. The valley is not far from the Atacama desert, so this is a dry, arid area - there is only about four inches of rain per year - meaning that water for the vineyards is largely a product of melting snow from the Andes. Along with Chardonnay, there are some excellent Sauvignon Blancs with bright melon fruit and distinct herbal notes, as well as plummy Syrahs that represent the best wines of Limari. (Wine/Appellations)
Limestone Coast
The Limestone Coast is a large appellation covering the broad sweep of coast to the south of Adelaide and rounding to the east where it meets the border with Victoria. The most prominent sub-regions include Coonawarra and its neighbors. Due to its close proximity to the Great Southern Ocean it is most broadly the coolest climate in South Australia.

Windswept, sparsely populated, and undeveloped, many of the larger companies have developed significant plantings in the broader region to supplement their hot climate plantings in the production of regional blends. So much so, that the area is now responsible for one-third of South Australia's wine volume, though much of that is blended and labeled with the broader South or Southeastern Australia designations. (Wine/Appellations)
Limousin is a type of oak used in barrels intended for aging alcoholic beverages. In Europe, limousin is the preferred oak for aging cognac, armagnac, sherry, and whiskeys. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Limoux is an appellation in southern France in the Pyrenees mountain range; it is part of the Languedoc-Roussillon region. There are white and red wines produced here, but the most famous are the sparkling wines, Cremant de Limoux and Blanquette de Limoux.

The whites are made from Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc and the local variety Mauzac, also known as Blanquette. The sparking wines are also made from these varieties ,with Mauzac the principal variety, while the reds are produced primarily from Merlot, with Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache and Syrah also being important varieties.

The whites are generally Chardonnay-dominant; the fact that these are some of the oldest Chardonnay vines in France, gives Limoux Blanc a curiosity factor. The wines are barrel aged, so at prices in the $10-12 range, these are some of the most interesting values for white wine anywhere in the world.

The reds must be at least 50% Merlot; these also are fine values. As the tannins are relatively light, these are meant for youthful consumption, within two to three years. Cremant de Limoux are also priced quite reasonably, making them a nice alternative to other value sparklers such as Cava from Spain and Prosecco from Italy.

Pair these white and sparking wines with lighter cheeses, with salads or with light cheeses, while the reds are ideal with lighter red meats or game birds.
The Linganore AVA, one of three in the state of Maryland, is located in the northeastern reaches of the state, some 30 miles from Baltimore. The climate here is a bit warmer than other wine zones in the state; humidity can be very high in the summer. The gravel and loam soils are deep and well-drained. Varieties ranging from Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Traminette and Vignoles are planted here; there are also numerous fruit wines, made from raspberries, peaches, strawberries and blackberries among others. There are only a few producers making wine from Linganore fruit. (Wine/Appellations)
Lion’s Tail
The lion’s tail was first written about in the Cafe Royal Cocktail Book in 1937. It’s unclear whether the author, William J. Tarling, created the drink but most likely not because of the scarcity of bourbon during the time. Just four years after the end of prohibition, bourbon was still hard to come by.

Allspice dram, or pimento dram, is a liqueur of allspice berries and sugar soaked in rum. With notes of cinnamon, cardamom, and of course allspice, it tastes like Christmas. It’s very strong and can easily overpower a drink so cocktails often call for small amounts to play a subtle role. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Liqueur d'Expedition
The "dosage" liqueur added to Champagne bottles to replace the volume of wine lost by disgorging the plug of spent yeast from the bottle is also called Liqueur d'Expedition. This liqueur always contains white wine and sometimes also contains sugar and/or brandy. By using dosage liqueurs of varying sugar contents, it is possible to produce sparkling wines of different sweetnesses from the same cuvee of sparkling wine. If the liqueur contains no sugar at all, the resulting sparkling wine will be bone dry and may be labelled "Brut." (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Liquid Malt Extract
Liquid malt extract is a concentrated, undiluted wort syrup commonly used in homebrewing. (Beer/Ingredients)
Lirac Blanc
Lirac is a Provençal wine that comes as a red, white, or rosé. The reds are of most interest and are made from a mixture of Grencahe, Cinsault, Mourvèdre, and Syrah. To generalize about style, red Lirac is somewhere between the pale, lighter Côtes-du-Rhône and heady, full-bodied Châteauneuf-du-Pape. Typically priced from $10 to $20, red Lirac from better producers can offer some of the best buys of the Southern Rhône. (Wine/Appellations)
Lirac Rosé
Lirac is a Provençal wine that comes as a red, white, or rosé. The reds are of most interest and are made from a mixture of Grencahe, Cinsault, Mourvèdre, and Syrah. To generalize about style, red Lirac is somewhere between the pale, lighter Côtes-du-Rhône and heady, full-bodied Châteauneuf-du-Pape. Typically priced from $10 to $20, red Lirac from better producers can offer some of the best buys of the Southern Rhône. (Wine/Appellations)
Lirac Rouge
Lirac is a Provençal wine that comes as a red, white, or rosé. The reds are of most interest and are made from a mixture of Grencahe, Cinsault, Mourvèdre, and Syrah. To generalize about style, red Lirac is somewhere between the pale, lighter Côtes-du-Rhône and heady, full-bodied Châteauneuf-du-Pape. Typically priced from $10 to $20, red Lirac from better producers can offer some of the best buys of the Southern Rhône. (Wine/Appellations)
Listrac is furthest from the Gironde of all the named communes in the Haut-Medoc and its vineyards enjoy the highest, if still modest, elevation. This factor, in conjunction with soils that are higher in clay and limestone content, tends to produce deeply-colored, tannic, and austere wines that need bottle age to come around. Wines from Ch. Clarke and Ch. Fonreaud are the highest regarded of the region. (Wine/Appellations)
Liter is the standard volume of measure in the metric system that is used throughout the world for wine. 1 liter = 1.054 U.S. quarts; 1 U.S. gallon = 3.785 liters. (Wine/Other)
Livermore Valley
The easternmost AVA in the San Francisco Bay Area is the Livermore Valley. It’s moderate climate made it a magnet for early Bay Area Wineries. There was a time when the region’s wines were the most famous in all of the state.

Livermore Valley put California on the international wine map in 1889, capturing America’s first gold medal at the Paris Exposition. The winemaking history here is long and fascinating, beginning in 1844 when Robert Livermore (an English sailor) jumped ship and planted the first vineyards. The Wente and Concannon vineyards, established in the 1880s, are still industry leaders in production today.

The climate of Livermore is affected by both coastal and inland influences. Inland heat from the Central Valley makes its way into the wine region and the weather is usually sunny during the growing season. At the same time, cool winds from the Bay moderate temperatures, especially in the evening and overnight.

The terrain of Livermore Valley was recognized very early as being suited for high-quality grapes. Despite the region’s well-drained soils, Livermore Valley has been transformed from a largely agricultural region to a suburb of San Francisco over the past few decades. Fortunately, Livermore Valley wineries have made significant progress in preserving the vineyards that remain. Concannon and Wente are the historic stalwarts in the region with newer, smaller producers such as Murrieta's Well continuing the proud traditions. (Wine/Appellations)
Settled at the northern tip of the San Joaquin Valley just east of the San Francisco Bay, where the fertile and diverse soils begin to make their gentle ascent to the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, Lodi boasts a classic Mediterranean climate consisting of warm days and cool evenings accented by a gentle maritime wind from the Sacramento River Delta. This delta breeze makes Lodi unique among other areas of the San Joaquin valley as the lower temperatures allow the ripening fruit to retain natural acidity.

Lodi is also remarkable in the diversity of its soils, though they can generally be characterized as deep and composed of sandy loam, sometimes spotted with the large stones. The eight-hundred growers in Lodi farm over 90,000 acres of winegrapes and produce more of the top five California varietals - Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Merlot, Sauvignon Blanc and Zinfandel – than any other wine district in California!

While Lodi is known for its capacity for varietal diversity, Zinfandel is the reigning king without rival, as more of it is grown in Lodi than anywhere else in the world. Old Vine Zin is Lodi’s specialty, with the same families tending vines over 120 years old for five generations. Lodi Wine Country is host to roughly sixty wineries, five of those being major producers including Woodbridge by Robert Mondavi, Sutter Home, Delicato, and Turner Road Vintners. (Wine/Appellations)
Loire Valley
If you were planning a dinner party and wanted to feature all of the wines of one region, the Loire Valley would work beautifully. This long stretch of vineyards, from the icy cold Pays Nantais at the mouth of the Atlantic to the warm central vineyards of the interior, produces a selection of wines for every course. The Loire Valley, known locally as the garden of France, is the only region that produces such a spectrum of fine wines. This range includes dry and off dry sparkling wines; bracing, vibrant whites; rich and bone dry whites; off dry to luxuriantly sweet whites; and a wide range of reds. The main wine growing regions follow the banks of the river Loire from its origin in the Cévenne Mountains out to the chilly Atlantic Ocean. The region boasts of sixty AOC’s!

The wines of the Loire valley have not ignited the passions of U.S. wine drinkers or critics in recent years. Although the Loire produces red wines, it is whites wines that are the mainstay. It would seem that the Chardonnay, Cabernet, Syrah, and Merlot varietal bandwagon that has propelled the interest of U.S. drinkers has largely passed the Loire by. Maybe it is the lack of toasty, barrel fermented, weighty wines or the fact that the flavors of Sauvignon Blanc and Chenin Blanc, the two most important grape varieties in the Loire, can be more varietally forceful. Regardless, consumers who want to really discover a true expression of either of the aforementioned grape varieties should get to grips with the wines of the Loire. Having done so, the ripe, oaky manifestations of Sauvignon Blanc or other whites may never have the quite the same appeal again.

Facing each other on opposite sides of the river Loire, Pouilly-Fumé and Sancerre produce the classic styles of Sauvignon Blanc in the Loire, though a host of other appellations, such as Menetou-Salon and Touraine, also use the grape variety. In a good vintage, the best Loire Sauvignons show brilliant yellow straw hues and exhibit classic herbaceous 'black currant' leaf and sub-tropical fruit aromas. In less ripe vintages Loire Sauvignon can take on a sweaty, 'wet wool' character, which is not utterly pejorative unless it is overwhelming. With very few exceptions, new oak is not a factor in making these wines, and Loire Sauvignons should not be aged more than a year or two before their lively fruits and acids are dulled.

Chenin Blanc is greatly under-appreciated in the United States as a high-quality wine grape. However, it unquestionably makes the Loire's finest wines of both the dry and sweet variety, south of the river at Angers in the appellations of Savennières and Coteaux du Layon. Anjou Blanc, copiously produced, though rarely seen in the United States, is also produced from Chenin Blanc. When pushed to its full ripeness by top producers, Chenin produces stunningly rich, concentrated dry wines that can age for upwards of a decade, becoming deep, honeyed, and earthy, in the manner of a mature Savennières.

In a couple of vintages per decade, typically, outstanding dessert wines are produced from grapes afflicted with noble rot. Such wines can last for many decades. The principal sweet wine appellations (in routine vintages they produce dry and demi-sec wines) are Vouvray, Bonnezeaux, and Coteaux du Layon. Fully sweet dessert styles from these appellations carry the word Moelleux (sweet) on the label.

Despite its northerly location, the Loire has pockets of vineyards that can ripen red grape varieties. The grape of favor is the early ripening minor Médoc variety, Cabernet Franc, although a small amount of Cabernet Sauvignon is also planted. The latter is a difficult proposition to ripen in all but the most exceptional years. Loire reds are of an herbaceous nature and often display crisp acids, vegetal overtones, and tart fruit flavors that can stop the regular consumer of ripe, fruity New World wines dead in their tracks. The weightiest of these wines come from the appellations of Bourgueil and Chinon, located to the west of Tours. Bourgueil can be lean and tough, though richer and cellar-worthy in exceptional vintages. Neighboring Chinon generally produces wines of more finesse, often of the lighter, raspberry-fruited nature, though in exceptional vintages dense, cellar-worthy wines are made. Often the most silky and raspberry scented reds of all come from the vineyards around the picturesque town of Saumur, and carry the appellation of Saumur-Champigny.

The Loire is, or certainly was, famous for its off-dry rose from Anjou, Rose d'Anjou, which is made from Cabernet Franc. This style of rose has fallen out of fashion among contemporary drinkers, though good examples are still delightful and fruity. Bad examples, unfortunately, are all-too-common.

Muscadet is one of the few appellations that carry the name of the grape cultivated within its boundaries. The Muscadet grape is also known by the synonym Melon de Bourgogne. The Pays Nantais region from which it comes produces a vast amount of cheap, acidic white wine destined for local consumption. The best wines, and generally the only ones exported to the United States come from the strip of land between the Loire tributaries of Sèvre-Nantaise and Maine, and it is called Muscadet de Sèvre-et-Maine. Look for the words 'Sur Lie' on the label, indicating that the wine has been aged on its lees, giving it some extra yeasty character. With very few exceptions Muscadet does not age well and is best drunk in its youth, with its natural partner, shellfish. (Wine/Appellations)
Lombardy is a wine region in extreme northern Italy, next to the Swiss border. Notable wines include the elegant Champagne-style Franciacorta, Nebbiolo wines of the Valtellina region, and the high-quality, verdicchio-based Trebbiano di Lugana. (Wine/Appellations)
Long Island Iced Tea
This is a popular mixed drink that should be in everyone's drink repertoire. An easy way to remember how to make a Long Island Iced Tea is to think of a small shot of 5 white spirits (gin, tequila, light rum, vodka, and triple sec), a shot of sour mix, fill with cola. It's really easy if you break it down, but it is also just as easy to drink too many of this highly alcoholic drink.

The 1970's credit for this potent and alluring concoction could go to Robert Bott, a bartender from Long Island, or to Charles Bishop, a 1930's moonshiner in (then dry) Tennessee. Or was it T.G.I. Friday's? (Spirits/Cocktails)
Lontue Valley
Lontue Valley, in central Chile, is a sub-region of the larger Curico Valley. It encompasses three smaller valleys: Claro, Tutuvén and Loncomilla; these three names are rarely seen on a bottle of Chilean wine. The principal grapes of Lontue are Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc. This small area enjoys a Mediterranean climate, with most precipitation in the winter; there is excellent diurnal variation between day and nighttime temperatures. Soils are limestone and volcanic rock and are relatively fertile, resulting in healthy yields for production of approachable, elegant reds and whites that are moderately priced. (Wine/Appellations)
Low Wine
A low wine is a distillate that has undergone just a single distillation. It is typically around 25% ABV. (Spirits/Production)
Luján de Cuyo
Lujan de Cuyo is a sub-region of Mendoza and home to some of Argentina's most thrilling wines. It is a shallow valley to the southwest of the city of Mendoza that runs for 20 miles south from the little village of Lujan. It is wedged between the foothills of the Andes to the west and the low slung Lunlunta hills to the east.

Vineyards are at a hefty 3,300 feet of altitude and the intense sunshine, combined with rocky, sandy soils yield concentrated, deeply colored reds that are literally bursting with varietal intensity, while cool nights preserve acidity and give the wines balance and elegance.

The region was officially recognized as its own appellation in 1993 and is itself carved up into several others. Catena Zapata, Septima, Cheval des Andes, Chakana, and Luigi Bosca headline a stellar roster of world class producers.

Reds are the superstars with Malbec and Cabernet, of course, but also truly outstanding Syrah and old-vine Bonarda, a grape introduced to the region by Italian immigrants in the 1800s. (Wine/Appellations)
A rich wine, high in sugar and, often, in glycerine, is sometimes referred to as luscious. Sauternes, Portos and some sweet white wines affected by Botrytis cinerea fill the bill. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
Lussac St. Emilion
The Right Bank of Bordeaux, due east of the city, encompasses the ancient town of Saint-Emilion and the nearby commune of Pomerol. The vineyards of both communes are planted heavily to Merlot and Cabernet Franc, which favors the cooler, often richer soils here more-so than those found in the Médoc. Saint-Emilion is a complex region with many soil variations within a small area. Nonetheless, with the Medoc as a frame of reference, the character of right bank wines can be said to be a degree richer in alcohol, and more fruit-centered with more supple, quicker maturing tannins: All traits which have endeared them to modern wine drinkers. Pomerol is a much smaller and more compact appellation, about the size of Margaux. Its wines are often more consistent in a given vintage and bargains are few among these sought-after wines.

Bargain seekers should pay particular attention to the outlying Saint-Emilion satellite appellations, recognizable by having their commune names hyphenated before Saint-Emilion on the label. The right bank proper also encompasses Fronsac, Côte de Bourg and Côtes de Blaye all of whose wines attract far less media interest and carry much lower price tags.

Merlot on the Right Bank is harvested, on average, two weeks earlier than the Cabernet Sauvignon of the Left Bank. This simple fact makes generalizations about the character of a vintage in Bordeaux difficult to encapsulate by assigning a number to a vintage in "Bordeaux." Vintages that bring rain at harvest can be poor in the Medoc and much more successful on the Right Bank. In such cases, getting the grapes in before the rain is the difference in quality in Bordeaux, and this is no small matter in a region that often gives estate managers anxiety attacks as rain clouds darken the sky when vines are heavy with almost ripe grapes.

The phenomenon of the Saint-Emilion garagiste, the small scale winemaker with little more than a garage and a plot of vines, has grabbed the attention of the fine wine world with deeply concentrated, tiny production wines that command hefty prices. Garagistes have been providing much of the buzz of excitement in the region in recent years and their wines continue to set new price records in the fine wine world. (Wine/Appellations)
Lynchburg Lemonade
Named after the home of the Jack Daniel’s Distillery, Lynchburg lemonade has a juicy history of misappropriation and lawsuits. Ultimately, Jack Daniel’s won the suit and the drink is now widely marketed by the brand and even sold as a ready-to-drink cocktail under the Jack Daniel’s label. (Spirits/Cocktails)