Wahluke Slope
The Wahluke Slope, lying to the east of Yakima in south-central Washington, is a sub-region of the Columbia Valley that was recognized officially in 2006. It is one of the warmest wine-growing regions in the state, and also one of its most geologically homogeneous. The Columbia River drifts lazily through a gap in the Saddle Mountains here and forms the region's southern and western boundaries. Some 5,200 acres are planted on what amounts to a single, giant alluvial benchland, created by successive floods.

Red grapes dominate here, led by Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Syrah. The region has only seen significant commercial development for 15 years, but already the area accounts for fully 20% of Washington's wine harvest. Still, only a fraction of potential vineyard land has been planted, and the Wahluke Slope has the potential for becoming the engine room for a significant increase in the state's volume of high quality red wines.

The climate is arid and particularly windy, making for small, concentrated grapes. This gives the region's wines their signature varietal intensity. While only two wineries, Fox Estate and Ginkgo Forest, are located within the AVA, several others have crush facilities here and Wahluke Slope grapes are sourced by wineries around the state. Perhaps most prominent among the plantings is the large Indian Wells Vineyard, which has become a flagship for Chateau Ste. Michelle. (Wine/Appellations)
Aroma hop bringing with it refreshing lime and stone fruit aromas. Similar to Riwaka, but with smoother flavors and more rounded. Used in IPAs, Pale Ales, and Wheat beers. Commercial examples of Wai-Iti include: The Bruery Solstice Porch Star, Sierra Nevada Karaoke Fail. (Beer/Hops)
Dual-purpose hop used for both bittering and intense aromas of pine & freshly-squeezed citrus. Used for IPAs and Pale Ales. Similar to Pacific Jade. Commercial examples of Waimea include: Other Half Mosaic + Waimea DIPA. (Beer/Hops)
Wairau Valley
The Wairau Valley is a sub-region of the famed Marlborough district at the northern tip of New Zealand's South Island. It is marked by stony alluvial soils that are more gravelly nearest the riverbed. In general the region is cooler and drier than the wider area and it has a diverse range of meso-climates. Pungent Sauvignon Blanc is the Wairau's calling card. (Wine/Appellations)
Dual-purpose hop with strong, fresh citrus flavors and aromas of freshly-zested lime and subdued flowers. Used in Belgian-style ales and Pale Ales. Similar to Nelson Sauvin and Hallertauer Mittelfrueh. Also known as "Hallertauer Aroma". Commercial examples of Wakatu include: Surly Unbridled, Moa Five Hop. (Beer/Hops)
Walla Walla Valley
Long home to a famous onion producing industry (Walla Walla Sweets), the Walla Walla Valley is in the extreme southeastern portion of the state of Washington, and spills over the border into Oregon. This quirk of political map drawing makes Walla Walla one of the very few cross-state appellations in the country. Lying in the rain shadow of the towering cascades to the west, the area, like all of eastern Washington is semi arid. Agriculture is made possible through the use of irrigation. For most this means precisely controlled drip irrigation which puts the water where it is needed, when it is needed, and in the quantities required. Of the potential vineyard acreage in Walla Walla, only a tiny percentage has been planted thus far, making the areas potential for growth quite exciting. The only limiting factor will be ever growing demands on the Columbia River and its tributaries for water rights.

Leonetti Cellar, founded in 1977, was Walla Walla's first winery, and foreshadowed the development of the area as a boutique wine haven. Walla Walla wines tend to be lush and endearing with a heavy reliance on oak seasoning. The red wines of Leonetti, Waterbrook, L'Ecole No. 41, and the like are highly coveted and eminently accessible. As for Chardonnay, many of the wines swing for the fences, but can always rely on the tell tale acidity that Washington wines usually possess for balance. It must be noted that similarities among the area's wines have much to do with winemaking practices, as many of these wineries' bottlings utilize grapes grown outside the Walla Walla Valley. As opposed to offering proof of Walla Walla's supremacy for grape growing, the region's wines actually show how a close knit winemaking community has helped with the exchange of ideas and allowed the enological equivalent of an artistic colony to develop. (Wine/Appellations)
Ward 8
Yet another classic cocktail with a convoluted history. One thing is for certain: this distinctive combination of rye whiskey, orange juice and pomegranate is a Boston cocktail through and through. Be sure to never use grenadine of the glowing red variety- a homemade recipe is best and makes this cocktail a million times more delicious. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Warren Hills
The Warren Hills AVA, one of three in New Jersey, is located in the western reaches of the state, near the Delaware River. While the total area covers slightly more than 140,000 acres, only 80 acres are planted to vines. The principal variety is Riesling, while hybrid varieties such as Chambourcin and Seyval Blanc account for most of the plantings. The climate is continental, with a few spots warm enough to ripen Riesling, Pinot Noir and Chardonnay; soils are a mix of limestone and silt with some rocky terrain. Production is small; the wines are mostly priced at $15 and under. (Wine/Appellations)
Bittering hop used in IPAs, APAs, Barley Wines, and other Strong Ales. Slight resiny, piney aromas. Somewhat similar to Nugget and Columbus. Commercial examples of Warrior include: Dogfish Head 60 Minute IPA, Surly Furious. (Beer/Hops)
Wash is the fermented beer or wine-like product that is ready to be distilled into a spirit. (Spirits/Production)
Washington State is a relative newcomer to the world of fine wines, but they have made as much progress in as little time as any region in the country. Luckily for the industry as a whole, two large wineries, Chateau Ste. Michelle and Columbia, have introduced consumers around the nation to the area's wines. Largely focusing on the production of high quality wines at reasonable prices, the state's vintners have begun to firmly set their sights on the production of world class products.

Geographically speaking, Washington is unlike any other viticultural area in the world. With virtually all the vineyards located in the rain shadow of the majestic Cascade Mountains, the area is in reality semi-arid. Only through irrigation with water from the mighty Columbia River and its tributaries can the area produce crops of any sort. Furthermore, virtually the entire Columbia basin shares the same sand based soil structure. This allows for something very unique in viticulture these days: vines planted on their own native rootstocks. Apparently, the root louse that causes Phyloxera doesn't travel very well in the sandy soils, and though it is endemic in some Washington vineyards, there is little alarm.

Eastern Washington is certainly a land of open skies and the region's volcanoes can be seen for hundreds of miles. This serves to illustrate the vastness of the region, and that region's potential. Of the possible vineyard sites, only a tiny fraction is actually planted. The biggest block to their development might be the brutal nature of the region's winters, which in February of 1996 virtually wiped out half of the state's production. Vines, however, are resilient things, and so are the area's vintners, who resumed full production in the 1997 harvest.

Cabernet Sauvignon has been planted for some time in Washington, and in the last 20 years the region’s wine makers have become quite adept at dealing with the varietal. Perhaps through their experience with Merlot, Washington wine makers began to ease up on the extraction of tannins which so heavily marked bottlings from tearlier years. Today, led by the boutique producers from around the state, along with industry giant Chateau Ste. Michelle, Washington Cabernet has taken on a new personality. Supple and brimming with character, the wines are still well structured with an emphasis on balanced acidity. Additionally, they tend to be a degree or two lower in alcohol than their California counterparts, making them quite a bit easier at the table. Today the top end of Washington Cabernet stands with California’s best, and as production increases with the general level of quality, there is no doubt that Washington will earn a reputation not only in this country, but the world over.

Boutique wines such as Leonetti, Andrew Will, and Quilceda Creek and many others have enjoyed remarkable success and are often under severe allocation. While such specialty wines are indeed worth seeking out, there are also some great Washington wines that enjoy wide distribution and consistent supply, while being sold at attractive price points.

Chateau Ste. Michelle, Hogue, and the Columbia Winery broke new ground in Washington in the 70s and early 80s, paving the way for national consumer acceptance of Washington State wines, and the proliferation of boutique wineries in the last 20 years. Their success was built largely on their ability to produce excellent wines at very attractive prices. While they all still have wide ranging portfolios with many wines still at attractive price points; they have also refined and expanded their production at the top end. Vineyard designated bottlings from Ste. Michelle and Columbia in particular figure among the finest produced in the state, and often the country, vintage after vintage. Furthermore with their solid distribution networks, these limited production wines are available both far and wide.

Chateau Ste. Michelle
Largest and probably best known of the trio is Chateau Ste. Michelle, or more accurately, the wine group known as Stimson Lane. Though tracing its roots back to just after prohibition, Ste. Michelle came into its own in the early 70s and spun off another winery, Columbia Crest, in the early 80s. Both wineries are owned by parent company, Stimson Lane. Since its inception, Columbia Crest has actually outstripped Chateau Ste. Michelle's own production becoming the largest winery in the Northwest. While Columbia Crest has focused on moderately priced wines, Ste. Michelle has been largely free to pursue a range of premium wines. This has led to the acquisition of some of the state's best vineyard land and the rapid development of a wide range of vineyard designated wines. In true Ste. Michelle style, success has been swift and spectacular. Wines from Canoe Ridge, Cold Creek, and Horse Heaven Hills have proven exceptional so far, while newer bottlings, such as the Chateau Reserve line, are being released every year. This has given Stimson Lane, from Columbia Crest through the specialty wines of Ste. Michelle, one of the widest ranging and highest quality portfolios of wine in the nation.

Columbia Winery
Known as Associated Vintners until 1984, Columbia is Washington's oldest continuously operating premium grape winery, dating to 1962. A psychology professor at the University of Washington and a number of his colleagues, whose subsequent research provided much of the impetus for Washington's grape planting boom, founded it. In 1979 David Lake, a Master of Wine, arrived to take on the winemaking duties until his untimely death in 2009. Lake's wines were quite refined in style, and though long lived, later vintages were getting more and more accessible in youth. Of particular note were bottlings from the Red Willow Vineyard, one of the state's finest. This property, owned by respected Washington grower Mike Sauer, had been contracted to Columbia for several years, and provided a number of limited production wines, including what was the state's first commercial Syrah.

Hogue Cellars
In 1949 the Hogue family started a farm in the heart of Washington's Yakima Valley. Hops, asparagus, potatoes, and a number of other crops formed the backbone of the family's production until the late 70s when the patriarch's son, Mike Hogue, decided to plant wine grapes. It proved to be a fortuitous decision as those early wines, produced in a small concrete shed on the property, won quick acclaim. This began what has been a truly meteoric rise, as Hogue is now among the state's largest wineries. In the late 80s their Riesling gained a national following while Chardonnay and Merlot followed in the 90s. 1989 saw the building of a new winery, and for the Hogue family the sky still seems to be the limit. This, however, has not changed their refreshing perspective on what for them is just a special part of the family business. Mike Hogue explains, "We've always had a lot of pride in what we produce, but as soon as the crop was brought in and sold, our identity was lost. With wine it's different. It's our wine, with our pride in it, and the family's name on the label." Something, no doubt, many a consumer understands all to well.

Walla Walla and the Canoe Ridge
While Washington's large wineries have made a splendid reputation for producing high quality wines at reasonable prices, the process has come full circle and paved the way for consumer acceptance of the boutique wineries which have sprung up in the 20 years. Much attention in particular should be paid to the exciting wines coming from the Walla Walla Valley and Canoe Ridge in particular. This is true not only of Merlot, but also of Cabernet and Chardonnay along with some interesting varietals such as Syrah and Semillon.

The AVA system in Washington was underdeveloped, with a huge swath of land relying on the use the Columbia Valley appellation. More recently, however, a continuing recognition of the diversity of the state's wines has led to the creation and pursuit of more precise appellations. The Walla Walla Valley is one such area.

Long home to a famous onion producing industry (Walla Walla Sweets), the Walla Walla Valley is in the extreme southeastern portion of the state of Washington, and spills over the border into Oregon. This quirk of political map drawing makes Walla Walla one of the very few cross-state appellations in the country. Lying in the rain shadow of the towering cascades to the west, the area, like all of eastern Washington is semi arid. Agriculture is made possible through the use of irrigation. For most this means precisely controlled drip irrigation, which puts the water where it is needed, when it is needed, and in the quantities required. Of the potential vineyard acreage in Walla Walla, only a tiny percentage has been planted thus far, making the areas potential for continued growth quite exciting. The only limiting factor will be ever growing demands on the Columbia River and its tributaries for water rights.

Leonetti Cellar, founded in 1977, was Walla Walla's first winery, and foreshadowed the development of the area as a boutique wine haven. Walla Walla wines tend to be lush and endearing with a heavy reliance on oak seasoning. The Merlots of Leonetti, Waterbrook, L'Ecole No. 41, Patrick M. Paul, and the like are highly coveted and eminently accessible. As for Chardonnay, many of the wines swing for the fences, but can always rely on the tell tale acidity that Washington wines usually possess for balance. It must be noted that similarities among the area's wines have much to do with winemaking practices, as many of these wineries' bottlings utilize grapes grown outside the Walla Walla Valley. As opposed to offering proof of Walla Walla's supremacy for grape growing, the region's wines actually show how a close knit winemaking community has helped with the exchange of ideas and allowed the enological equivalent of an artistic colony to develop.

Unlike Walla Walla, the wines of the newer micro-appellation, Canoe Ridge, owe their startling quality to the region itself, in addition to the skill of the wine makers. Lying well to the west of Walla Walla on the banks of the Columbia River, Canoe Ridge is a 1,000 foot hill rising from the river and looking out over the barren scrub land on the Oregon side. Named by Lewis and Clark on a 19th century expedition through the area, the hill resembles an overturned canoe. It is jointly owned, in its entirety, by Chateau Ste. Michelle, and the Canoe Ridge Winery, a member of the prestigious Chalone family of wineries. Planted only in the late 80s, it would be an understatement to say that the initial releases were promising. They are now some of the best Merlots in the state and the country, and Chardonnay has proven exceptional as well. Somewhat more restrained than many Walla Walla wines, Canoe Ridge wines show attractive fruit, while being relatively elegant and restrained. As an added bonus the wines are blessedly devoid of harsh tannins.

With Washington wines on the whole that's much of the idea. Often referred to as one third California and two thirds Bordeaux, the region's wines offer the ripe and forward qualities of fine New World wines with the crispness and drinkable structure of the Old. Never overpowering or alcoholic, Washington wines are best defined in one word: balance. (Wine/Appellations)
Wassail is hot mulled cider, mead, wine, or beer. It is also an Old English toast meaning "be healthy". (Beer,Wine,Mead/Other)
See Herbaceous. This term is often used to refer to Cabernets or Merlots. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
Pronounced vine, wein means wine in German. (Wine/Other)
A weingut is a wine producing property in Germany, similar in concept to a French Chateau. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Pronounced vyn-strass-uh, a weinstrasse is a "wine road" in Germany— a tourist route which connects many wineries in a given area. Weinstrasses are an excellent way to spend part of your vacation in any wine country. (Wine/People and Places)
The Weinviertel district, is located in the far northeastern corner of Austria, in the region known as Niederosterreich (Lower Austria). This is the largest DAC wine zone in the country, with 33,000 acres planted. This is Gruner Veltliner territory, as this variety accounts for a little more than half of the area's total plantings. Zweigelt, a local red is next; plantings of this variety have increased over the past decade, while the numbers for Gruner have slightly decreased. Other varieties planted her include Riesling, Chardonnay, Pinot Noir and Pinot Blanc. Weinviertel has a continental climate; vineyards are planted primarily on flatlands. Soils are a mix of gravel, sand, limestone and clay. (Wine/Appellations)
Well Drink
A well drink is a mixed drink made from a bar's well spirits selection. The well is the area surrounding the bartenders ice bin. Typically the lowest priced or most often called for products are situated in this area, being the most accessible to the bartender's reach. (Spirits/Service)
Western Australia
Western Australia is Australia's largest state, covering the entire western third of the continent. It is sparsely populated, and the remote interior and north is simply too hot for viticulture. All of the wine regions are clustered around the cooler southwestern corner of the state, in proximity to Perth.

Vineyards here are cooled by the Indian Ocean to the west and the Antarctic Ocean to the south. The climate shares more in common with Bordeaux than it does with the warmer regions of eastern Australia, and as a result, it has become a go-to for world class and age-worthy Cabernet, particularly from the Margaret River.

Though vineyards have been planted in the Swan Valley near Perth for some time, most of the industry is fairly new and growing rapidly. Following the initial success of Margaret River, plantings have increased rapidly and Western Australia's wine output has doubled in the last 20 years! (Wine/Appellations)
Western Cape
The Western Cape region of South Africa, in the far southwest near Cape Town, is home to two of the country's most important wine appellations, Paarl and Stellenbosch; other wine districts in the Western Cape include Overberg and Walker Bay, where Pinot Noir is an important variety. Overall most of the country's vineyards are located in the Western Cape, with most situated within 100 miles of the ocean; thus enjoying a Mediterranean climate. To the north, vineyards are planted above the 2000 foot elevation; Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz are the most widely planted varieties in this zone. For now, Bordeaux blends and herbal-influenced, edgy Sauvignon Blancs are the best wines from the Western Cape. (Wine/Appellations)
Western Connecticut Highlands
Western Connecticut Highlands is an American Viticultural Area (AVA), covering roughly one million acres. There are 15 wineries in this area, most of them produce less than 2500 cases annually.

Varieties range from classics such as Chardonnay, Merlot and Riesling to hybrids such as Marechal Foch, Marquette and Seyval Blanc; fruit wines are made from raspberries and cranberries, while there are also small quantities of ice wine and sparkling wines produced. Most wines are fruit-forward and are meant for consumption in their youth; these are largely available for sale only at the wineries. (Wine/Appellations)
Wet Hopping
Wet hopping is the process of adding fresh hops (vs. dried) after primary fermentation. (Beer/Production)
Wheat is a grain, either malted or unmalted, used in brewing and distilling. It can provide a lighter mouthfeel and touch of acidity to a mashbill. (Beer/Ingredients)
Wheat Malt
Malted wheat is used in conjunction with malted barley in the recipe of some beer styles including witbiers and weissebiers. (Beer/Ingredients)
Wheated Bourbon
Wheated bourbon is bourbon that contains wheat in its mash bill. Some believe that wheat adds an extra layer of sweetness and softness to the finished bourbon or that the addition of wheat renders a bourbon more adept at long-term aging— sometimes up to 20 years. (Spirits/Classification & Attributes)
Whiskey Daisy
The Daisy cocktail has undergone a lot of tweaking over the years. The essential DNA of the Daisy involves adding a little soda water to a Sour (spirit, citrus, sweetener). Beyond that, though, you can take some liberties. Jerry Thomas called for shaved ice; Savoy, for cracked. Any number of base spirits have been used as a foundation, and depending on which source you read, the finished drink should be poured into a cocktail glass, pewter mug, Julep cup, large goblet or glass highball. Earlier recipes include orange cordial, but by the early 20th century, grenadine had become the traditional sweetening agent. All versions, however, agree that a Daisy should be cold, refreshing and garnished with seasonal fruit. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Whiskey Smash
The whiskey smash is a very old, very classic cocktail. Falling somewhere between a julep and a sour, the smash differs from the julep with its addition of fruit and from a sour with its preference for whole fruit rather than juice. This is a highly modifiable cocktail- try swapping other herbs for mint, other acidic fruits for lemon, or flavored syrups for the simple. It is also perfect for home bartenders as it doesn’t require fancy shaking- just muddle, pour, and serve. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Whiskey Sour
The classic whiskey sour is a perfect combination of tart, sweet, and satisfying. Though classically made with an egg white, feel free to leave it out. One ingredient to never skimp on is fresh squeezed lemon juice- don’t attempt the cocktail without it. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Whisky Mac
Short for Whisky Macdonald, this classic UK cocktail is made of Scotch whiskey and traditional ginger wine- a concotion of fermented raisins and currents flavored with ginger and often fortified with spirit. (Spirits/Cocktails)
White Lady
A smoothed out Gin Sour, the White Lady was made famous by two different Harrys. Its creator, Harry MacElhone of Harry’s New York Bar in Paris, noted several different versions (including one with unsavory proportions of crème de menthe), but settled on this pared-down mix of gin, Cointreau and lemon juice with an optional egg white. Harry Craddock included it in his 1930 Savoy Cocktail Book, and, to this day, you can still order a White Lady at the Savoy Hotel’s American Bar. (Spirits/Cocktails)
White Meritage
A White Meritage, like Red Meritage, is a proprietary name sanctioned by the Meritage Alliance, a group of like minded US wine producers who emulate the classic Bordeaux tradition of making wines from blends of class Bordeaux varietal grapes. White meritage blends are white wines made from blends of Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, and Muscadelle du Bordolais. They are lovely with seafood and poultry. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
White Mexican
Mexican horchata melds with Tequila and coffee liqueur in this south-of-the-border White Russian riff. (Spirits/Cocktails)
White Negroni
A contemporary twist on an Italian Classic, the White Negroni is a refreshing and appetite wheting cocktail. Try with any light colored bitter liqueur like Suze, Gran Classico, Salers Aperetif, etc. (Spirits/Cocktails)
White Oak
The variety of American oak which is used for barrel manufacture is named white oak. Virgin white oak typically imparts vanilla, dill, or coconut flavors to the beverage aged inside of it. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
White Pinot Noir
White Pinot Noirs are white-to-very-pale-rosé colored wines made from the dark skinned pinot noir grape by gently pressing the grapes to remove a clear juice and removing that juice from the skins to prevent coloration. This technique is very common in Champagne production, but relatively new on the American wine scene where pinot noir producers in Oregon have recently embraced the style. Stylistically, they are somewhere between a pinot gris and a rose with flavors of apple, peach and tropical fruits and crisp acidity being typical. Pair with spicy fish, chicken, and seafood dishes. (Wine/Classification & Attributes Grapes)
White Riesling
White riesling, along with Johannisberg Riesling, is an outdated term for the familiar Riesling. (Wine/Grapes)
White Russian
The White Russian is a drink everyone should know. It's a simple, creamy vodka mixed drink with a nice coffee flavor that makes a great after-dinner sipper. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Wild Yeast
Wild yeast is any mixture of the thousands of possible airborne yeast strains which may happen to appear and start their own fermentation in fermentable substance before you add your cultured yeast or in lieu of it altogether. Wild yeast can be unpredictable-– it can destroy the quality of a beverage or can carry out the fermentation in a more-or-less normal fashion. They are a favorite low-intervention winemakers, lambic brewers and many experimental fermenters. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Finishing hop with characteristic herbal/spicy, elderberry, incense, and floral aromas. Used in English-style Ales, American-style Ales, Stouts, and Porters. Similar to Fuggle and Styrian Golding. Commercial examples of Willamette include: New Belgium Abbey Dubbel, Abita Turbodog. (Beer/Hops)
Willamette Valley
The Willamette Valley is 150 miles long and up to 60 miles wide making it Oregon’s largest AVA. It runs from the Columbia River in Portland south through Salem to the Calapooya Mountains outside Eugene. Named for the river that flows through it, the Willamette Valley has the largest concentration of wineries and vineyards in Oregon and includes six appellations within its borders: Chehalem Mountains, Dundee Hills, Eola-Amity Hills, McMinnville, Ribbon Ridge and Yamhill-Carlton.

Modern winemaking in the Willamette Valley dates back 50 years with the genius of three UC Davis refugees who believed that Oregon was an ideal place to grow cool-climate varieties. Between 1965 and 1968, David Lett, Charles Coury and Dick Erath separately forged their way to the north Willamette Valley despite negative rumblings from their UC Davis cohorts who told them it was impossible to grow wine grapes in Oregon. They were the first to plant Pinot noir in the Willamette Valley. They also planted small amounts of related varieties, including Pinot gris, Chardonnay and Riesling.

These wine pioneers whole-heartedly believed that Oregon would one day become an important wine-growing region. Other believers were not far behind. Within the next decade, David and Ginny Adelsheim, Ronald and Marjorie Vuylsteke, Richard and Nancy Ponzi, Joe and Pat Campbell, Susan and Bill Sokol Blosser and Myron Redford all planted vineyards in the Willamette Valley.

These families worked in a collaborative spirit, sharing advice, humor and encouragement, as they began writing history by producing superior wines in Oregon. It wasn’t until David Lett entered his 1975 Oregon Pinot noir in the 1979 Gault-Millau French Wine Olympiades and won top Pinot noir honors against France’s best labels that the world started to take notice of Oregon as a serious winemaking region.

The Willamette Valley became an official AVA in 1983. Today, it is recognized as one of the premier wine producing areas in the world. It is most widely known for its award winning Pinot noir, but consistently earns top honors for other such cool-climate varieties as Pinot gris, Chardonnay and Pinot blanc.

The Willamette Valley is relatively mild throughout the year, with cool, wet winters and warm, dry summers. While moisture is abundant, most of the rainfall occurs in the winter, not during growing season. This temperate climate, combined with coastal marine influences, make the gentle growing conditions within the Valley ideal for cool climate grapes, including Pinot noir. The Valley enjoys more daylight hours during the growing season than in any other area of the state. During this longer growing season, the Willamette Valley enjoys warm days and cool nights, a diurnal temperature swing that allows the wine grapes to develop their flavor and complexity while retaining their natural acidity.

The Willamette Valley is an old volcanic and sedimentary seabed that has been overlaid with gravel, silt, rock and boulders brought by the Missoula Floods from Montana and Washington between 10,000 and 15,000 years ago. The most common of the volcanic type is red Jory soil, which is found above 300 feet elevation (as it had escaped the Missoula Floods deposits) and is between four and six feet deep and provides excellent drainage for superior quality wine grapes. Anything below 300 feet elevation is primarily sedimentary-based soil.

The Willamette Valley is protected by the Coast Range to the west, the Cascades to the east and a series of hill chains to the north. Its namesake, the Willamette River, runs through its heart. The largest concentration of vineyards are located to the west of this river, on the leeward slopes of the Coast Range, or among the valleys created by the river’s tributaries. While most of the region’s vineyards reside a few hundred feet above sea level, parts of the Willamette Valley do reach much higher. The Chehalem Mountains are the highest mountains in the Valley with their tallest point, Bald Peak, rising 1,633 feet above sea level. (Wine/Appellations)
Wine is the beverage produced by yeast fermentation of grape juice or must. Wine has a specific legal definition in most countries of the world. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Wine Institute
The Wine Institute is a trade organization of California winery members headquartered in San Francisco for the purpose of advancing the business interests of its member wineries. The Wine Institute keeps its members constantly informed and advised on the political, legal and social status of "anything important to the wine industry." The Wine Institute has no sales, marketing or production function, though outside critics often accuse it of "not doing a good job of helping member wineries with marketing or promotion." (Wine/People and Places)
Wine Trade
The wine trade is a common name given to the collective group of retailers, wholesalers, restaurateurs, wine salesmen and wine producers which make up the "wine industry." (Wine/People and Places)
Wine Vinegar
Wine vinegar is vinegar which was made from wine -- as opposed to standard, kitchen-run vinegar which is usually made from apples, pineapples, pears or any other fruit which happened to be cheap and available at the time it was made. (Wine/Other)
One of the most accurate descriptive words in the science of wine, is but one of the most misunderstood also. The term winegrowing implies that quality in wines is not made in a winery but outside in the vineyard. The grower who merely "grows grapes" tries to maximize his tonnages and get maximum dollars -- without caring what the eventual use for his crop might be. By contrast, the winegrower tends his crop according to which farming practices will make the best wine. He avoids overcropping, uneven fruit ripening or the use of spray chemicals which could interfere with later fermentation. He works diligently to harvest his fruit as near as possible to the optimum ripeness level for the type of wine intended. He studies the latest viticultural practices and what they may mean to the quality of wine. Most of all, he understands that a winemaker in a winery doesn't improve quality. Either quality is in the grapes or it isn't. The winemaker can only hope to avoid ruining the wine by preserving whatever quality is there. He cannot produce quality wine from poor grapes. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
A winemaker is the person in charge of winemaking in a winery. In some wineries, he or she is also called "production manager." The winemaker may be in overall charge of the whole (small) company, or only the fermentation, aging and bottling of a single wine in a large winery. (Wine/People and Places)
A winemaster is the chief winemaker within a given winery or wine company. The term is sometimes used as the equivalent to "brewmaster" in a brewery. (Wine/People and Places)
A winery is a place where wine is made. A winery may be made up of one or more buildings or no building at all; it can be a cave or simply an open air assortment of tanks, barrels or other containers. (Wine/People and Places)
See vinous. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
Winkler Index
The Winkler index is a system for identifying the suitability of an area for grape growing and winemaking by the amount of heat received from the sun during the growing season. The heat units are summed up as average "degree-days," then used in comparison with degree day summations from the known wine regions of the world. Five major regions are used:

Region I receives up to 2,500 degree days of heat each year.
Region II receives from 2,501 to 3,000 degree days per year.
Region III receives from 3,001 to 3,500 degree days per year.
Region IV receives from 3,501 to 4,000 degree days per year.
Region V receives above 4,000 degree days of heat per year.

Most of the world's best table wines come from regions I, II and III. However, any given variety usually is found to prefer only one narrow range of heat summation for optimum wine quality. For example, the best sparkling wines are grown in the coolest of climates (region I), Cabernet Sauvignon produces its best wines when the grapes are grown in Region II vineyards but high alcohol dessert wines are best in the warmer climates of Regions III and IV. Table grapes are often best in Regions IV and V. Each local vineyard or wine organization can tell you their area's average heat summation. (Wine/Other)
Wisconsin Old Fashioned
The bane of contemporary mixologists’ existence, the Wisconsin Old Fashioned, is alive and well-- muddled fruit and sour mix be-damned. Wisconsinites LOVE their Old Fashioned and arguably single handedly kept the Old Fashioned alive for decades before it came back in style in the early 2000s. The state also arguably single handedly brought Korbel California Brandy to success by way of their allegiance to the spirit over whiskey.

The primary differences between a Wisconsin Old Fashioned and the rest of the country’s Old Fashioned are:
A. the muddling of fruit and sugar cubes.
B. The inclusion of soda, citrus soda, and/or sour mix
and C. The aforementioned use of brandy over whiskey (Spirits/Cocktails)
Wood Tannin
Wood tannin is tannin present in beverages as a result of wood aging. This is in contrast to tannins derived from fruit, barley, or other materials. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
Woody is a tasting term for a wine in which the effect of prolonged (perhaps too much) contact with wood is noticeable. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
The pre-fermentation liquid that results from the mashing process in making beer or grain-based spirits. (Beer,Spirits/Production)
Wrattonbully South Australia
Wrattonbully is the region located between Coonawarra and Padthaway inland on the Limestone Coast well south of Adelaide. Padthaway was initially developed by Seppelt in the 1960s, when Karl Seppelt discovered a northern extension of Coonawarra's famous "terra rosa" red clay soil.

As development rushed into Padthaway, vineyard land between the two regions started to fill-in in earnest in the 1990s, and "Wrattonbully" received its own appellation in 2005. The area is, of course, similar to both Padthaway and Coonawarra in that it has a cooler climate than the Barossa and areas to the north, but it does not have the same extent of terra rosa soil. Shiraz is most widely planted here, with Cabernet and Merlot in support. It will be a region to watch as the vines continue to mature. (Wine/Appellations)