Fair Play
The Fair Play AVA is a hill-top sub-region in the Sierra Foothills wine wountry. The area has relatively fertile soil compared to other grape growing regions in the Sierra Foothills, but this is balanced by the wine region’s extremely high elevation and cool, windy climate. So the soil is forgiving compared to other Sierra Foothills Wineries, but the climate is marginal.

There are currently ten Fair Play wineries. Local vineyards are planted mainly with Zinfandel, but Syrah and Barbera are gaining in popularity. The climate of Fair Play is a warm Region Three on the UC Davis Heat Scale, but this is a bit misleading because nights cool considerably. Because of the region’s elevation and cool nights, wines tend to have high acidity. Fair Play is the newest AVA in the region, but the history of vineyard development began here during the 1870s, and Horace Bigelow established the first of the Fair Play Wineries in 1887. (Wine/Appellations)
Falanghina del Sannio DOC
Falanghina del Sannio DOC is a white wine, named for the Falanghina grape, grown in the provinces of Benevento and Avellino in the southern Italian region of Campania. Falanghina has naturally high acidity along with aromas of apple, lime and white flowers; most versions are aged in steel tanks to preserve the aromatics, although a few versions are aged for a short time in wooden barrels. Typically, a Falanghina del Sannio is consumed within 3-5 years of the vintage date, and is often served with local shellfish or consumed on its own, as an aperitif. (Wine/Appellations)
Famatina Valley
The Famantina Valley wine zone is located north of Mendoza in the La Rioja region. Vineyards here are at very high elevations, between 3300 and 5000 feet; clearly at these heights, ripening is rarely a problem, as there is a combination of ideal sun exposure along with cool temperatures. Vineyards are planted on sandy, alluvial soils, which are perfect for most whites as well as medium to medium-full reds. While Malbec is planted here in good numbers, is it the white variety Torrontes that is the leading cultivar here, as it represents 50% of total plantings. Other varieties found in local vineyards include Bonarda, Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay. (Wine/Appellations)
Fan Leaf
Fan leaf is one of the prominent virus diseases of grape vines. One of its symptoms is that part of the leaf becomes misshapen, giving the appearance of a small fan. (Wine/Other)
Fat is a subjective tasting term to describe a wine that has an overly thick, soft and flabby mouthfeel, lacking crispness. Fat wines invariably have too-high pH levels (too low acidity) and fail to improve with age. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
Fatty Acid
Fatty acids are yeast and bacteria by-products generally considered faults in most beers which include acetic, butyric, caprylic, diacetyl, isovaleric, and lactic flavors. (Beer/Chemistry & Flaws)
Faults In Beer
Faults is beer are unintended characteristics of a beer that detract from its conceived profile, such as spoilage, infection, haze, etc. (Beer/Chemistry & Flaws)
A beverage will sometimes be described as feminine because it has a more delicate character than most or has flavors and aromas one may associate with femininity. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
Fermentation is the chemical breakdown of organic substances by bacteria, yeasts, and other microorganisms. The fermentation involved in alcoholic beverages converts sugars to ethyl aclcohol. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Fermentation Vessels
Fermentation vessels are containers in which the active sugar-to-alcohol conversion occurs. (Beer,Wine,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Fermented On The Skins
When a wine is said to be "fermented on the skins" it means the grape juice and skins were fermented together. In this case the separation of solids from the wine is only done after fermentation is complete. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Fermenter is the common name given to tanks, barrels or other containers when they are used for fermentations. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
The Fiddletown AVA is in Amador County and sits adjacent to the Shenandoah Valley, but at a higher elevation. If the soils were any less fertile, they simply would not be able to sustain vineyards, but this feature produces extracted Zinfandel with dark pigments, strong tannins, and high alcohol.

Fiddletown has perhaps the most inhospitable terrain for grape growing in the state. Soils are high in iron and made of decomposed granite. Farming without irrigation is very difficult here, but when it is successful, the resulting grapes have impressive flavor concentration.

There are a few Fiddletown wineries, but many of the grapes grown in the region are sold to non-resident wine producers. Renwood Winery is located in the nearby Shenandoah Valley and purchases Zinfandel from Fiddletown Wine Country. Rombauer also buys grapes from the region.

Fiddletown’s climate is a little cooler than its neighbors, but Fiddletown Zinfandel has higher alcohol and jammier fruit flavors than examples from El Dorado County, which are typically a little lighter and more acidic.

The history of Fiddletown Wineries is closely tied to the Gold Rush. After the gold dried up, cattle, agriculture, and tourism became the biggest industries in the region. There are currently about 325 acres of vineyards in the area. (Wine/Appellations)
Field Budding
Field budding is a method of grafting grape vines, used especially in coastal California, in which the rootstocks are planted and allowed to grow for nearly a whole season before the grafting takes place. Then, rather than making a traditional woody graft, the worker in early September attaches a small chip (containing only one dormant bud of the desired fruiting variety) to the rootstock at just above ground level. The cambium layers must be held in good contact so that, as the vine continues to grow, a callous material forms around the cut, sealing it permanently. The chip is held in place and sealed from drying by wrapping the stem with a small piece of rubber strip. After this, the whole stem of the plant, including the budded section, is covered with several inches of loose earth, to keep the new bud shaded and cool so it will not begin to grow immediately. The vine then finishes its normal period of autumn maturation and goes into dormancy within several weeks. It is not touched again until the following spring. In spring, the worker uncovers the loose earth exposing the wrapped bud on the stem of the rooting. She cuts the rubber tape and checks to see that the bud has indeed become calloused firmly onto the stem. If so, she then cuts the vine off just above the bud so that there is no viable part of the vine left above the bud except the bud itself. Now, as the roots begin to allow sap to push upwards, the only bud available for growth is that which was added the previous September. This bud begins to grow, elongating into a vigorous shoot which can often grow to three feet in length within six weeks. Because it is delicate and friable, the new shoot must be tied every few inches to prevent breakage caused by the wind. It is this shoot which becomes the trunk of the new vine during this, its first year of active growth. (Wine/Other)
Filtering is the process of straining out solids from an alcoholic beverage. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Film Yeast
See Flor. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Filtration is the act of passing a beverage through some tightly bound matrix in order to force the liquid to pass through while keeping the suspended solids behind. The purpose of filtration is simply to clarify the liquid -- to remove sediment or suspended solid particles from the wine. The matrix may be a tightly woven cloth, paper, polymer, or some tightly packed insoluble powder such as diatomaceous earth. In previous decades, asbestos was used as a filter medium but now that it is known to cause a health hazard, asbestos is no longer used. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
To fine means to reduce the solids content of beverage after fermentation. In traditional operations, egg whites, milk solids or blood is used, sometimes a Wyoming clay called "bentonite" or the like is used. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Fine Champagne
Fine Champagne is a term used on the labels of Cognac brandy. Fine champagne Cognac is Cognac blended from the best "champagne" regions (Petite Champagne and Grande Champagne) of Cognac. The word Champagne is derivative of a French term for chalky soil, so it has applications outside of the French sparkling wine. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Finesse is s tasting term which implies that a beverage is impeccably balanced and elegant. It implies a subtle kind of excellence with grace that needs no boasting. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
The term finger when used in regards to spirits, is a rough volumetric description of a serving of spirit- the height of one finger laid horizontally to the glass. (Spirits/Service)
Finger Lakes
The Finger Lakes is centered on a series of thin, deep, long lakes in the central part of upstate. The moderating influence of these waters and the warmth provided by east facing hills allows the fragile grapevines to survive the region's harsh winters and to ripen grapes in the summer. As it is a cool grape-growing region, it is only fitting that it should specialize in white wines. Riesling in particular is where the Finger Lakes is beginning to establish a very solid reputation, but high quality, sophisticated sparkling wines are also appearing with more regularity.

Just as in Germany, where Riesling reaches its apex, the grapes struggle to ripen in the cool Finger Lakes climate and the hillsides and rivers make viticulture possible. It should not come as a surprise that German wine makers have been drawn here and winery names such as Wiemer or Frank attest to the fact. As the fortunes of Riesling have waned in the Chardonnay-goggled US, it is abroad that many of these wines are leaving a mark. I was amazed to be at dinner with a large Belgian wine buyer in the French countryside recently when he asked me not about the latest glamour winery in Napa, but what my opinion was of Finger Lakes Riesling. He then proceeded to list all the best producers from the top of his head and retreated to his room for a sample bottle he had been toting around the Mosel the previous weekend (to bemused admiration, apparently).

US consumers will eventually catch on to Riesling, and when they do the Finger Lakes will be shown to be the nation's finest Riesling appellation. At present, the wines are a steal, with some great bottles going for $10 and sometimes less. As with fine Riesling anywhere, these wines also age well, and I have been delighted by five to ten year old examples that have developed that inimitable "petrolly" note that is the hallmark of a fine Riesling with some age. Though availability is somewhat limited, the best retailers around the country will carry some of the best examples. As a "house" wine, Finger Lakes Rieslings are astonishing values, particularly at a half or a third the price of many innocuous Chardonnays. (Wine/Appellations)
Fining is the act of clarifying or removing undesirable components from a beverage. This is usually done by adding a pure material which has the property of reacting with and removing the undesired component. Typical fining agents are gelatin, egg white, bentonite and activated carbon. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Finish is the last impression left in the mouth after spitting or swallowing a beverage. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
Finishing s the final steps in processing a beverage before bottling. Often, this includes fining, blending and filtration or centrifugation and may include bottling. Many beverages are said to be "finished" in wooden casks. For instance a Scotch whiskey may be aged in neutral oak for 12 years but finished in port casks for 6 months. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Fino is a type of Sherry that has undergone biological aging under flor, or a veil of yeast. It is among the driest wines in the world. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Fior d'Arancio Colli Euganei DOCG
Fior d'Arancio Colli Euganei DOCG covers a small number of wines made from the Moscato Giallo variety in the Colli Euganei area in the province of Padua in Italy’s Veneto region. There are three DOCG wines, including a sparkling and a passito version, but the most well known is the dry or off-dry version that has a delicate orange (arancio) color to it.

The wine is unoaked, to preserve the fruit aromas; this is a delicate, charming wine. With enticing aromas of apricot and peach, it is is an ideal wine to be enjoyed on its own, or with fresh fruit (peaches) or with a fruit tart. Generally the wine is consumed within 1-2 years of its vintage date to enjoy its freshness. (Wine/Appellations)
First Runnings
First runnings is the initial wort extracted from the mashing process, before the mash is rinsed with fresh water. (Beer/Production)
First Wort Hopping
First wort hopping is the addition of bittering hops at the beginning of the wort boil. (Beer/Production)
Fish House Punch
The Fish House Punch is one of the true classic drinks that has stood the test of time. Rum, Cognac, and peach brandy form the majority of the drink and, though the combination has a great taste, it is a potent one.

The interesting name refers to its origin at the Schuylkill Fishing Company (aka Fish House Club) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The establishment was (and is) a private club dating back to the Revolutionary War as a place for fishermen to gather, eat, and drink. During that time individual cocktails were almost nonexistent and the punch was the customary way to drink with friends. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Flabby is a tasting term for a wine which unbalanced and low in acidity. Flabby wines taste "fat" and retain an unpleasantly thick mouthfeel. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
Flaked Barley
Flaked barley is unmalted barley, rolled into flat 'flakes', used as an adjunct to provide grainy flavors, head formation, and foam stability. (Beer/Ingredients)
Flanders is the Dutch-speaking area of northern Belgium, known for its Flemish Red Ale style of beer (among others). (Beer/People and Places)
Flabby is a tasting term for a beverage that is too low in acidity. A flat beverage is lacking in crispness and is often difficult to drink and enjoy even if the flavor is pleasant. In sparkling beverages the term flat means that it lacks carbonation. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
This commune is located just to the south of Moulin-a-Vent, in the heart of the cru district. The vineyards are planted at higher altitudes on steep slopes. Fleurie tends to be among the lightest of the crus with a highly aromatic, floral quality. As such, the commune has been referred to as the "Queen of Beaujolais." (Wine/Appellations)
Fleurieu Peninsula
The Fleurieu is a relatively new wine growing region located on a peninsula that juts into the Gulf of St. Vincent, opposite Kangaroo island to the southwest of the city of Adelaide. Being bordered on three sides by the ocean, this region is being explored as a cool climate (more moderate/Mediterranean really) alternative to the Barossa. It is early days, but initial results with Shiraz and a wide range of experimental varietals have shown promise. d'Arenberg, in particular, has been a proponent of the region and has shown a strong commitment to development. (Wine/Appellations)
Flinty is a tasting term used to describe beverages with a hard, austere, dry and crisp or sharp mouthfeel, sometimes with a hint of smoke. Often used for clean white wines such as Chablis which has a bouquet and taste reminiscent of flint struck by steel. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
A Flip is a simple yet highly modifiable combination of spirit, sugar, and a whole egg. This category of cocktail dates way back to the 1600’s when the recipe included beer and was served hot. Today the cocktail is most often served cold and is ideal as an after-dinner drink or nightcap. Make this drink your own by combing different sugar syrups with different spirits. Try brown sugar syrup with Jamaican rum or honey syrup with Scotch whisky.


Crack the egg into a cocktail shaker tin
Add remaining ingredients to tin
Shake ingredients vigorously
Add ice to the tins and shake once again
Strain into a small wine glass or cocktail glass
Floor Malting
Floor malting is a traditional method of germinating barley where the wet grain is spread out over a floor and turned by rake until ready. (Beer,Spirits/Production)
Flor is an unusual strain of yeast that, under certain winemaking conditions, forms a thick yeast layer atop maturing wine. This process is particularly desirable in certain types of sherry production where barrels are filled only five-sixths full so the presence of oxygen can facilitate the production of flor. This flor gives the wine a fresh taste with bready characterstics. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Floraison is the flowering or bloom period of grape vines. This happens with most grape varieties in most regions about two months after bud break. New pinhead sized green berries form after floraison, then enlarge to become grapes. (Wine/Other)
Flowery is a tasting term for beverages with exceptionally aromatic characters reminiscent of fresh garden flowers. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
Foam is the beer "head"— a collection of CO2 gas bubbles, proteins, yeast, and hop residue. (Beer/Classification & Attributes)
Fog Cutter
A complex classic from Tiki Mogul Trader Vic. We recommend making your own orgeat for this recipe, though it can be a cumbersome process the result is absolutely worth it. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Folle Blanche
Folle Blanche is a white grape variety, used in several countries for table wines, but with better success when those wines are distilled into brandy. It is one of the traditional grape varieties of Cognac and Armagnac. Although not widely used in any country, the wines can be very nice with high levels of acidity and a rustic appeal. (Wine/Grapes)
See Heads (Spirits/Production)
Fortified Wine
Fortified wines are those that have had grape spirit added to them. They have higher alcohol levels and typically will last longer upon opening. Some examples are sherry, port, madeira and vermouth. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Foxy is a term to describe the so-called "foxy" taste in American labrusca and closely related grapes. Foxiness can be described as smelling or tasting like a fox's urine, an animal den, or even a mink coat. A flavor substance called methyl anthranilate is partiaIIy responsible for this characteristic. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
Ask anyone in the USA where the best American wines are produced, and they undoubtedly will say “California, or Oregon, or Washington.” If they are the least bit wine savvy, they may even mention the Napa Valley or Sonoma. But ask anyone in France the same question, and with that look that so effectively blends contempt and nationalistic pride they will say, hands gesturing upwards, the name of their village, or that of their parents or grandparents if they have moved on.

The French have the right to be haughty about their wines. They have earned it after centuries of trial and error, government quality controls, and tedious, backbreaking labor. Wine comes from every corner of the country, from the marginal climate of the north all the way down to the sun-baked south. In general, the wines of France are balanced. That is, they are not too fruity, or too oaky, or too sweet, or too alcoholic.

The French have always consumed wine at the table, many times in place of water, and the tradition continues today. Since wine is a part of the meal, and generally not something created to win a medal or to please a wine critic, it is often produced with minimal intervention by the winemaker. The result is a wine that hopefully retains a certain harmony, elegance, and personality of its origin.

Most of the classic wines of the world come from France. Anyone with even the slightest inclination towards the subject should begin with the great wines of Bordeaux, Burgundy, the Rhone Valley, the Loire Valley, Alsace, and Champagne. Any wine book worth its salt will devote a great number of pages to these regions, and winemakers the world over still view France as a role model. Indeed, producers from Napa Valley still like to compare their Chardonnays and Pinot Noirs to those of Burgundy, and the Cabernet Sauvignons, Merlots, and Sauvignon Blancs, to those of Bordeaux.

In France wines are generally named by their region of origin, not by their grape variety.
White Burgundy is Chardonnay, red Burgundy is Pinot Noir, white Bordeaux is Sauvignon Blanc and Semillon, red Bordeaux is Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Cabernet Franc. So the key to understanding the wines is to learn a bit about the wine producing regions. The new world doesn’t have a long history of winemaking that ties specific varietals to certain regions, but that is beginning to change. Winemakers in the newer, warmer growing regions of the world are entering the golden age of trial and error, an era that may last as long as the viticultural history of France! (Wine/Appellations)
Franciacorta is a sophisticated, dry, sparkling wine made in the traditional champagne method in the the Province of Brescia, Lombardy. One can think of it as Italy's answer to Champagne. It is an elegant wine with carbonation evocative of creamy mousse. Like Champagne, Franciacorta is made primarily from Chardonnay and Pinot Noir though Pinot Bianco is allowed.

Non-vintage styles must be bottle aged at least 18 months on the lees. Restrictions increase with each quality level up to the Riserva designation in which wines must spend at least 60 months on lees. Rosé varieties are allowed and notable. Also notable is the Satèn style; this is a softer, less carbonated Blanc de Blancs variation that is made only with Chardonnay and Pinot Bianco. Franciacorta is a beautiful pairing for freshwater fish and celebratory occasions. (Wine/Appellations)
Franken is a descriptive term for wines produced in Franconia, in central Germany. The major wine variety grown in Franconia is Sylvaner, although Riesling, Muller-Thurgau and Gewurztraminer can be found, as well as some Spatburgunder. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Franken Riesling
See Sylvaner. (Wine/Grapes)
Frankland River
Frankland River is an up-and-coming region in the southwest corner of Western Australia. It lies roughly 200 miles south of Perth and 100 miles east of the Indian Ocean and Margaret River. The region lies 50 miles inland from the Great Southern Ocean, whose constant breezes cool the vineyards and make for a Mediterranean climate. This effect is emphasized by modest elevation as most vineyards are planted 500 to 1,000 feet above sea level.

The region has earned a reputation for producing fresh, crisp, dry Rieslings that rank with those of the Clare and Eden Valleys as some of the nation's finest. Unusually minerally soils are thought to contribute to the success with the varietal. In addition to Riesling, Frankland produces distinctly peppery Shiraz and local producers tend to use less oak than producers in Eastern Australia, creating a more northern Rhone-like regional style. (Wine/Appellations)
Free Run
Free run is a term for the grape juice or newly fermented red wine that is allowed to flow by gravity from the fermenter rather than being pressed out. It is considered lighter and less rich than press wine, but is often blended with it to arrive at a balanced product. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Freisa d’Asti
Freisa d'Asti is a DOC established in 1972 for the production of Freisa in the hills surrounding Asti. It is fairly rare, with only 600 acres under vine and 50,000 cases in annual production. It is occasionally seen as a still wine, but more often bottled as a sparkling spumante made in the Charmat method.

Freisa is an unusual Italian red grown almost exclusively in Piedmont. It produces a pale, high acid, tannic, grapey red that is often bottled with a bit of residual sweetness to balance the ferocious acidity. It is intended to be a summer quaffer. The bittersweet (literally) result tends to be a polarizing, love-or-hate specialty. (Wine/Appellations)
French 75
The story of the French 75 goes back to around 1915 when Harry MacElhone created in at the New York Bar in Paris. It was brought to the U.S. by returning World War I pilots and became a popular drink at New York City's Stork Club. The name comes from a 75mm French field gun that was said to have the same kick as the drink.

At some point in its early history this drink was made with Cognac in place of the gin and there is some question as to which version is the real French 75, but gin is the more common now. To add another twist, if the same drink is made with vodka for the base spirit, it is a French 76. (Spirits/Cocktails)
French Martini
A sweet and fruity cocktail that came out of the 1990’s “Martini” craze. This is in no way a martini, but crowd-pleasing nonetheless. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Fresh is a tasting term generally used to describe beverages with a pleasant, youthful sensation. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
The Fresno County AVA covers - as you might imagine - Fresno County, almost exactly in the middle of the state of California. Fresno is probably better known for its grapes that become raisins for eating, but this is also a thriving wine area. Most of the viticulture is located between the Kings and San Joaquin Rivers; this area is appropriately named Two Rivers. There are about a dozen producers in the area, working primarily with red varieties, such as Zinfandel, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Alicante Bouschet. A few white varieties, such as Viognier, Pinot Gris and Albariño are also found in a few vineyards. (Wine/Appellations)
Friuli, historically referred to a Friuli Venezia-Giulia, is a region in the far northeastern reaches of Italy, bordering with Austria and Slovenia. This is one of the coolest climates in the country, as the combination of winds from the nearby Julian Alps along with breezes from the Adriatic Sea help moderate temperatures.

There are about a dozen wine zones in Friuli, with the most renowned being Friuli Collio and Friuli Colli Orientali (collio means "hill", colli orientali, meaning "eastern hills."). The most recognized wines here are white, produced from varieties such as Friulano, Sauvignon (Blanc), Ribolla Gialla and Pinot Bianco. As plantings are largely on hillsides, yields are limited; combine that with the natural acidity of this cool climate and you have wines that offer beautiful aromatics, excellent richness and ideal structure for aging. The wines are immediately drinkable yet are often much better with a few years in the bottle. One other special note about these wines is that in the Collio district, wines must contain 100% of the variety specified on the label.

Friuli is also known for blended whites, usually a marriage of three or four varieties; a few of these selections are regularly mentioned as among the finest in all of Italy. As for reds, while Merlot performs well here, local varieties, such as Refosco, Pignolo and Schiopettino are the real stars of the region. These are deeply colored with plenty of spice and are often made in more of a rustic fashion than most contemporary reds. These wines age for a decade or more.

Friuli is today, one of the largest of all the wine regions in Italy, but much of that has to do with mass plantings of Merlot, Pinot Grigio and Chardonnay in southern zones such as Friuli Grave, where vineyards are planted on flatlands. These are very simple, inexpensive wines that have almost nothing to do with the finest wines from the Colli Orientali, Isonzo or Collio districts to the north. (Wine/Appellations)
Friuli Grave
Friuli Grave refers to wines made in a small area of the Friuli (also known as Friuli Venezia-Giulia) region; this territory is found in the provinces of Pordenone and Udine. The name Grave (pronounced graav-ay) refers to the gravelly soils of this area.

Friuli Grave is comonly associated with modestly priced wines, produced from indigenous varieties, such as Refosco and Friulano, but especially with international varieties, including Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Chardonnay. While most wines from Friuli Grave are lighter and less complex that the finest examples of the region, prices are usually are quite reasonable. (Wine/Appellations)
The Fronsac and Canon-Fronsac appellations are located around the town of Fronsac on the Dordogne River to the northwest of Saint-Emilion on Bordeaux's Right Bank. Only red wines are produced, and the typical blend is based on Cabernet Franc with smaller amounts of Merlot.

The wines tend to be supple and rich, and are about on par with Cru Bourgeois wines from the Medoc in terms of quality. Similarly, Fronsac can present some of the best price-to-quality ratios in all of Bordeaux. Much investment has been going on in the region, as can be evidenced by the fact that 13% of local vineyards are now owned by Chinese interests. This is helping to raise overall quality in the region and Fronsac is very much an insider's choice for quality Right Bank Bordeaux that won't break the bank. (Wine/Appellations)
Fronton AOP
In the southwest of France, just north of Toulouse, Fronton AOP produces unique and powerful wines. 85% of production is red and just 15% is rosé, leaving no room for white wines. Their reds and rosés are mostly based on the region's signature variety- Negrette. Negrette boasts intense flavors of violets and licorice with a big tannic backbone. The grape is so important to the region that it must make up at least half of all vineyard plantings and 40% of wines. Syrah and other southwestern French grapes comprise the rest of the plantings.

Theses wines are mostly drunk in Toulouse and paired with cassoulet. Try a more contemporary take by pairing a Fronton wine with North African couscous stew with lamb sausage. (Wine/Appellations)
Fuder is the German name for casks which hold about 1,000 liters (>250 U.S. gallons). (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Full is a term used to describe a beverage's body, it can also be used to describe the depth or weight of flavors. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
Sterilization of barrels by burning sulfur wicks in otherwise closed barrels is called fumigation. The sulfur uses up oxygen from inside the barrel as it burns, forming sulfur dioxide (SO2). The combination of SO2 and lack of oxygen generally stops the action of yeasts and bacteria in a barrel. It is then necessary only to wash the barrel and refill it with wine for aging. Only with heavily infected barrels is it necessary to sterilize the barrel further. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Fusel Oil
Fusel oil is a type of congener made primarily of higher alcohols and is a byproduct of fermentation. Many of the flavors of wine, beers, and spirits (other than clean vodkas) can be identified as the higher alcohols and their esters, all of which are collectively known as fusel oil. (Spirits/Ingredients)
Saké that has less than 30% of the unwanted elements milled away is called Futsu-shu and is politely referred to as “bulk saké”. Futsu-shu is not a regulated beverage by the Japanese government and may have a variety of additives including sweeteners, colorings and bulk alcohol.

These are not considered as refined or as flavorful as the finest sakes, so keep that in mind when selecting sake for exotic cuisine. These are the sakes that should be served warm. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Futsushu is "everyday" or "value" sake. It has no rice polishing requirement. (Sake/Classification & Attributes)