Yadkin Valley
Yadkin Valley, located in the northwestern corner of North Carolina, is one of three AVAs in the state. Situated in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains, the climate features moderate winter and summers that are warm, but not too hot. Once a haven for tobacco growing, Yadkin Valley now has 400 acres planted to vines, with 14 operating wineries. There's a little bit of everything planted here, be it hybrids, such as Chambourcin, Traminette or Vidal, world famous varieties such as Chardonnay, Merlot and Malbec or a good number of Italian varieties, such as Barbera, Nebbiolo, Sangiovese and Malvasia. (Wine/Appellations)
Yakima Cluster
Virtually identical to the "Cluster" hop, this bittering hop has an earthy flavor with flowery aromas along with sweet fruits. Sometimes used for aromatics in various ales; otherwise, in the boil of Porters, Stouts, and Barley Wines. Similar to Galena or Chinook. Commercial examples of Yakima Cluster include: Anchor Liberty Ale, Ballantine IPA, Leinenkugel Original. (Beer/Hops)
Yakima Valley
The Yakima Valley AVA was the first region to be officially recognized as an AVA in the Pacific Northwest, back in 1983. Though it is technically a sub-region of the broader Columbia Valley AVA, it actually precedes the latter, which was officially recognized a year later. This is the largest sub-region in Washington, located in the south-central portion of the state, surrounding the city of Yakima.

Bitter cold winters aside, the Yakima Valley is the winery capital of Washington State with over 60 wineries and 13,000 acres under vine. Together these account for one-third of the state's wine production. The region was first planted in 1869 by Charles Schanno, a French winemaker from Alsace. Many of the state’s original modern wineries chose this desert-like plateau as a setting for the vineyards. Why? Irrigation canals, remnants of turn-of-the-century farming projects, provide plenty of water for the thirsty vines.

The Yakima Valley stretches for nearly a hundred miles and has a diversity of micro-climates. Recent years have seen the creation of several sub-appellations including Red Mountain, Snipes Mountain, and Rattlesnake Hills. The appellation contains the state's oldest Cabernet Sauvignon vines, which were planted in the Otis Vineyard in 1957 and the Harrison Hill vineyard in 1963.

The region's climate is arid and continental with a very high diurnal range. This produces wines with excellent varietal intensity. Cooler parts of the valley are known for Riesling and Chardonnay and the region provides half of the state's output for these varietals. Reds, however, play a significant part and the region produces many of Washington's most coveted, clasically-styled Cabernets, Merlots, and Syrahs. (Wine/Appellations)
Yamahai is a method of sake fermentation that allows airborne bacteria to create lactic acid, instead of bacteria being added separately. No mash precedes this process in contrast to the Kimoto process. (Sake/Production)
The Yamhill-Carlton AVA is located in Oregon's Willamette Valley, north of the city of McMinnville, and about 35 miles southwest of Portland. Just west of the production zone, the Coastal Range provides a rain shadow over the area, while the Chehalem Mountain to the north also help block rain, as well as sending cool breezes through the vineyards. Vineyards are planted between 200 and 1000 feet; soils are a mix of marine sediments and sandy loams. The typical Yamhill-Carlton Pinot Noir has a very deep color, bright plumy fruit and slightly lower acidity than Pinot Noirs from other regions. (Wine/Appellations)
Yarra Valley
The Yarra Valley is tucked just to the northeast of the city of Melbourne and it is one of Australia's oldest wine growing regions, having been first planted in 1838. It is a cool climate region that excels with Pinot Noir and Chardonnay, and these varietals dominate the plantings.

The valley has a rolling topography, with the oldest vineyards planted on the slopes of the Yarra Ridge, which bears a passing resemblance to Burgundy's Cote d'Or. The region enjoys a modest elevation of 1,600 feet that serves to accentuate the cool climate and extend the growing season.

Being an easy trip from Melbourne, the Yarra Valley is Victoria's most popular wine destination and shares a bit in common with Napa in terms of well-developed tasting rooms and tours, in addition to a range of stylish restaurants. (Wine/Appellations)
Yeasts are unicellular microorganisms which occur naturally in the air, especially in areas where fruits are grown. Whether "wild" or "cultured," yeast can quickly metabolize natural sugars contained in the base materials of beverages into alcohol and carbon dioxide (called fermentation). (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Yeast Lees
Yeast lees are a solid sludge-like sediment, primarily spent yeast, which settles to the bottom of a fermentation tank after the fermentation is completed. They can be a blessing or a curse to a winemaker and must be carefully managed. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Yeasts, or rather enzymes in yeasts, ferment liquids into alcoholic beverages. They contribute to flavor in various ways. Some maintain that yeasts in fino Sherry butts (casks) contribute to the yeasty flavor of these wines. Others see the yeasty character of Champagnes to be directly related to the long period of yeast contact that such wines have (owever, what we perceive as yeast-smells in Champagne (or similarly made sparkling wines from other countries) is more likely the result of a lightly to strongly oxidized white-grape wine blend). Many distilleries, wineries, and breweries maintain secret proprietary yeasts to ferment their products as it is one of the major contributors to flavor. When a beverage is described as yeasty, a leavened bread type of aroma is what is being referred to. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
Yecla is a DO wine region, situated in the far southeastern reaches of Spain. While it is not far from the Mediterranean, it also has some continental climate patterns, as snow is a frequent occurrence in winter, and summers are quite hot; rainfall is scarce. Vineyards range from 1600 to 2600 feet above sea level. Plantings here are dominated by the red Monastrell variety, which gives a deeply colored wine (bright purple), ripe black cherry flavors and round, middle weight tannins. There are mono-varietal examples of Monastrell as well as many reds blended with Syrah, Petit Verdot and Merlot, with Monastrell being the base. These other varieties are also produced on their own and are made in a ripe, fleshy, crowd-pleasing style. Monastrell is the principal variety for the rosés from this area, while whites are made from grapes such as Macabeo, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo. These are refreshing light, aromatic whites for short term enjoyment. (Wine/Appellations)
Yolo County
Yolo County is located in northern California; in the northwestern reaches, the Dunnigan Hills AVA can be found. The climate here is Mediterranean, so this area is less prone to frosts than other nearby areas; this climate also provides for good natural acidity in the wines. Chardonnay, Syrah and Tempranillo are leading varieties. Only two or three wineries have ever been located in the Dunnigan Hills; production is concentrated on inexpensive whites, reds and rosés. (Wine/Appellations)
York Mountain
The small York Mountain AVA is in the western part of San Luis Obispo County. The region is near the Templeton Gap, which is a funnel for coastal winds, making the temperature quite a bit cooler than areas to the east. Local rainfall is also higher and the mountain soils shallower, producing unique, distinctive wines.

York Mountain has three wineries and only a couple hundred acres of vineyards. Unlike most producers in Paso Robles to the east, York Mountain wineries produce wines that are known more for grace than for power. The grapes are grown in a moderate and elevated climate that is only about seven miles inland from of the Pacific Ocean. The region is blessed with the combination of a long and sunny growing season that is moderated by maritime breezes and cool overnight temperatures.

Andrew York established the region’s first commercial winery. Originally called Ascension Winery, it has since been renamed York Mountain Winery, but was in the same family's hands until 1970! (Wine/Appellations)
Yorkville Highlands
Approved in 1998, the Yorkville Highlands AVA is located in southern Mendocino County, about a two hour's drive from San Francisco; it is named for the topography around the eponymous town. Vineyards are situated between 800 and 3000 feet; at this elevation, conditions are perfect for cool climate varieties. Not surprisingly then, Pinot Noir dominates the plantings in the AVA, accounting for more than 60% of total acreage; this is followed by Syrah, Mourvedre and Sauvignon Blanc, along with smaller acreage devoted to Malbec and Merlot. Soils on the hillsides are rocky and gravel-based, limiting yields, resulting in highly concentrated, deeply colored wines (one area producer on his web site points with pride to the "black ink" quality of his wine). Although the Yorkville Highlands is not as well known as some of the other AVAs in Mendocino County, such as Redwood Valley and the neighboring Anderson Valley, the wines are among the finest, especially Syrah, Pinot Noir and Sauvignon Blanc. (Wine/Appellations)
Yountville, Napa Valley
Once a sleepy exit off of Highway 29, the Yountville AVA has changed dramatically in the past two decades. The climate in this region is warmer than in the south, but is still relatively cool by Napa Valley standards, producing very long-lived Cabernet Sauvignon.

The history of Yountville Wineries dates back over 150 years. In 1836, General Mariano Vallejo granted George Calvert Yount the 11,000 acre Rancho Caymus. It included much of the Valley floor between the modern day towns of Yountville and St Helena. Yountville’s terrain is quite consistent. Alluvial fans dominate the wine region’s soils, especially in the west, while eastern Yountville contains a bit of soil that has eroded down from the hills.

Yountville wineries have evolved with the town. Twenty years ago, there were very few wineries in the area. The development of premium Yountville Wineries (Dominus, Domaine Chandon) and restaurants (Bouchon, The French Laundry) is a microcosm of the many changes the Valley has experienced in recent years.

Yountville Wine is produced in a moderate, breezy climate. The most popular grape in the region is Cabernet Sauvignon. Merlot, Zinfandel and Syrah are also planted in Yountville, along with some cooler climate grapes like Pinot Noir and Chardonnay. (Wine/Appellations)