Paarl is an important wine region located in South Africa's Western Cape. Classic South African varietals are grown in Paarl, including Pinotage, Shiraz, Mourvedre, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chenin Blanc, and Chardonnay. (Wine/Appellations)
Pacific Gem
Bittering hop with distinct blackberry and spicy black pepper aromas with delicate oak, floral, and blackberry flavors. Tempered bitterness and flavor with citrus and pine aromas. Used in continental lagers, Pale Ales, and IPAs. Similar to Columbus, Tomahawk, Zeus, and Pacific Jade. Commercial examples of Pacific Gem include: Against the Grain The Green Dragon, Thornbridge Geminus, Surly Unbridled IPA. (Beer/Hops)
Pacific Jade
Dual-purpose hop with fresh citrus/lemon, cracked pepper spice, and dank herbal aromas. Used in a variety of styles. Similar to Pacific Gem. Commercial examples of Pacific Jade include: Lawson's Jade Pale Ale, Bell's The Oracle DIPA. (Beer/Hops)
Paddy Cocktail
An Irish twist on a classic Manhattan. (Spirits/Cocktails)
The Australian wine region of Padthaway lies just to the north of Coonawarra in the inland portion of the Limestone Coast well south of Adelaide. The region was initially developed in 1963 by Seppelt, when Karl Seppelt discovered a northern extension of the famous "terra rosa" red clay soil of Coonawarra. Since this time, all of the big players have moved in and developed extensive plantings.

The region is marginally warmer than Coonawarra, but broadly similar in climate. Plantings here have been more white wine driven than Coonawarra, with particular emphasis on Chardonnay, though Cabernet and Shiraz certainly play a role. The cooler conditions, relative to the Barossa and hot regions to the north, have made Padthaway an important source of vibrant whites that can be bottled without oak, as tastes have moved away from the oaky heavyweights of the recent past. (Wine/Appellations)
This cocktail is trademarked by Pusser’s Rum. It’s a tasty tropical treat that owas created by Daphne Henderson at the Soggy Dollar Bar in the British Virgin Islands. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Aroma hop with clean floral characteristics, apricot, and grass; also used as a bittering hop for a smooth, non-aggressive hop flavor in English-style Pale Ales & Bitters. Similar to Willamette and Glacier. Commercial examples of Palisade include: Bullfrog Palisades Pale Ale, Sly Fox Palisade Pale Ale. (Beer/Hops)
Palo Cortado
Palo Cortado is a dry style of Spanish sherry. It is traditionally an accidental variety, intended to become fino or amantillado, but never developed the necessary layer of flor. The result is a wine of high quality that has been oxidatively aged. It can be seen as a quality bridge between oloroso and amontillado. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
For a refreshing, thirst quenching tequila cocktail, the Paloma is definitely at the top of the list and it's a favorite in Mexico. It's a light, fruity drink with a great fizz and one of the smoothest tequila drinks out there.

Almost any blanco tequila works well in combination with the grapefruit and you may also see this cocktail with grapefruit juice and a splash of soda instead of a grapefruit soda like Squirt. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Palomino is the predominant grape variety used in the Jerez, or Sherry region of Spain. It is also found elsewhere in Spain, being used for common table wines there. The same is true for California, where it is called Golden Chasselas and makes everyday table wines. As a table wine variety, Chasselas often tastes flat and lifeless. It is naturally a low acid grape and is best used in blends with other varieties. (Wine/Grapes)
Paper Plane
The drink, invented by the New York bartender Sam Ross, who created the classic modern cocktail the penicillin, has slowly been gaining steam since it was introduced in 2007, showing up on cocktail menus in numerous time zones. It is a rich, immediately likable whiskey sour lent plenty of culinary complexity by the amaro and aperol. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Parts Per Million
Parts per million, or PPM, is a comparative unit of small measure which is exactly as it sounds -- "parts per million parts of anything." For example, pounds of something per million pounds of something else, grams per million grams, etc. One red grain of sand among a million white grains is one part per million. One person in a million person city is 1 ppm. (Wine/Chemistry & Flaws)
Paso Robles
Paso Robles is a large AVA without much ocean influence, making it a warm climate growing region, albeit with some cooler micro climates located towards the southwestern sector where sea air enters via the Templeton Gap. On the north it is bounded by Monterey County, with San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara Counties to the south. Daytime temperatures are quite warm through the growing season and a high degree of ripeness is consistently achieved. These are conditions that emphatically make this red wine country, and Cabernet Sauvignon is the most widely planted varietal in the county with red Rhone varietals coming on strong in recent years.

Paso Robles reds tend to be quite rich and ripe with deep berry and chocolate flavors. Occasionally the wines can veer into over-ripeness with some bottlings showing stewed flavors. As a younger region, Paso Robles is still in many respects finding its way, yet its unique physical attributes should continue to make for large scaled, rustic leaning reds with a greater sense of refinement in the years to come.

Paso Robles’ history of wine production dates to the days of the Spanish Missionaries. The first vineyards were planted at Mission San Miguel Arcangel during the late 18th century. Prominent wineries include Tablas Creek, Justin, Saxum, and J. Lohr among others. (Wine/Appellations)
Louis Pasteur, the "father of modern winemaking, and pasteurized milk," did his famous research at the town of Arbois in France's Jura region. He correctly identified yeasts as the causative organisms for fermentation and developed a heat process (Pasteurization) for stabilizing wine, milk and other liquid foods from spoilage. Pasteur wrote, "Wine is the most healthful and hygienic of beverages." (Wine/People and Places)
Pasteurization is the destruction of living yeast and bacteria in beer, usually by high temperatures, to prevent unwanted changes in the liquid. (Beer/Production)
Patagonia is South America's southernmost wine producing region and as one can deduce from the name of a better known winery in the region, Bodega del Fin del Mundo (end of the world), that is saying something. Patagonia itself is a vast region, more than twice the size of California, and is home to the fabled "pampas" of cattle and gaucho fame.

Patagonia is less Texas than northern Great Plains, however, with a semi-arid cool climate. The region is warmed in the summer by a persistent drying wind that makes viticulture possible in pockets, if not for the feint-of-heart. Production is centered on two rivers, the more established Rio Negro, and the up-and-coming Neuquen. This is a much cooler-climate region than distant Mendoza to the north, and as such has been looked to for cool-climate grapes, particularly as having the potential to produce Pinot Noir in Argentina. While the jury is still out, the heartbreak grape is drawing experimenters in and the novelty factor doesn't hurt either. (Wine/Appellations)
Located between the communes of Saint-Estephe and Saint-Julien in the Haut-Medoc of Burgundy, on the left bank of the Gironde, Pauillac is a small appellation that produces some of the most coveted wines in the world. It is generally agreed that Pauillac is the single greatest of the Medoc communes and it contains three of the five First Growths: Latour, Lafite Rothschild, and Mouton Rothschild. The vineyards are slightly elevated compared to surrounding districts and generally full of gravel. The style of the Cabernet Sauvignon-dominated blends is firm, concentrated, and age-worthy with a signature minerally, "pencil shaving" quality to the aromatics. (Wine/Appellations)
Pavia Igt
The Pavia IGT, or more formally, Provincia di Pavia IGT, covers all of Pavia, the westernmost province in Italy's Lombardy region. While there is a nice mix of white and red varieties, from Pinot Grigio and Riesling to Sangiovese, Barbera and Cabernet Sauvignon, planted here, the only wines that are well known are those from Oltrepo Pavese, where Chardonnay and Pinot Noir dominate. The most famous versions are classically made sparkling, while there are also dry table wines made from these grapes. (Wine/Appellations)
Pays d'Oc IGP
Pays d’Oc IGP are wines from four separate departments of the Languedoc-Roussillon region along the southern coast of France. This is a very warm Mediterranean climate, although sea breezes bring some relief during the day. These wines were previously known as VDP, but are now classified as IGP, more in keeping with European Union regulations.

There are numerous style of wines labeled as Pays d’Oc, in part as more than 50 different varieties are planted. These include such famous reds as Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah and Pinot Noir along with Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Viognier and Muscat; this last variety is vinified both dry (identified as Pays d’Oc, as well as sweet, as in Muscat Petits Grains).

Within the larger IGP classification, there are several AOP wines, one of the most famous being Banyuls. A very famous Pays d’Oc red is the Mas de Daumas Gassac, produced from Cabernet Sauvignon. This is priced in the $40 range, a good deal more than the typical $25 for most of the best Pays d’Oc red wines. This particular red, like many from this area offer excellent ripeness and distinct, spice, making them fine matches with game and stews. (Wine/Appellations)
Peat is a compact mass of decayed and decaying vegetation that forms in wetland conditions. Scotland happens to have a large concentration of peat bogs and the country has used this peat as a fuel for ages. Malted barley is commonly dried atop a peat fire lending a distinctive smoky aroma to the barley. This barley is then used to make some Scotch whiskies and ales that have a hallmark smoky flavor. (Spirits/Ingredients)
Pediococcus is a bacteria that contributes a 'funk' flavor to beer. (Beer/Chemistry & Flaws)
Pegu Club
The Pegu Club Cocktail is a classic cocktail that was somewhat forgotten over the years but is regaining its popularity. It was first mentioned in the 1930 Savoy Cocktail Book, in which Harry Craddock credits the drink to the Pegu Club in Burma. The drink traveled throughout the world and was a hit until World War II.

It is a great gin cocktail that deserves some attention and is best shaken so much that your hands get cold from frost. The orange liqueur is a matter of choice and can be Cointreau, curacao, or triple sec. You may also equate this recipe to gin's answer to the Daiquiri or Margarita. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Dual-purpose hop with a complex herbal character of mint, juniper, sage, or thyme, and subdued tropical flavors of pineapple with a touch of cucumber. Used when specialty herbal notes are required. Commercial examples of Pekko include: Stone Old Guardian 2016 (dry-hopped). (Beer/Hops)
Peloponnese is a large peninsula in southwestern Greece where some of the country's finest wines are produced. Two of the finest appellations in the country are situated within Peloponnese: Mantinia for white wines, and Nemea for red wines. These production zones are in eastern Peloponnese, where the climate is more continental than the rest of the country.

Winemaking here goes back thousands of years; Homer called this area Ampeloessa, meaning "full of vines." While this was an area that grew more grapes for eating than using to produce wine, today, Peloponnese is known for its high quality wines. There are 17 appellations within the area, and numerous varieties are planted throughout the zone. The leading cultivar is Moschofilero, used for production in Mantinia wines; other widely planted varieties include Agiorgitiko and Muscat, while there is a small percentage of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Chardonnay as well. There are some fine values from Peloponnese exported; found on American retail shelves, these include Cabernet at less than $15, along with rosés and the ever popular Roditis, at similar pricing. (Wine/Appellations)
Penedès is a famous wine zone (DO) in Catalonia in northeast Spain. It is a thriving wine area, known for reds, whites and especially for its sparkling wines, as Cava, the country’s most recognized bubbly, is produced in massive quantities from this zone.

Regarding sparkling wines, these are produced from several varieties, including Xarel·lo, Parellada and Chardonnay, while Pinot Noir is also used in some of these examples. Beginning in 2013, a new classification of local sparkling wines, Classic Penedès, was inaugurated; these wines must be produced exclusively from grapes from the Penedès area, and they must be farmed organically.

The area of Penedès varies from very hot to moderately cool, with vineyards at higher elevations; the climate is Mediterranean, with most rainfall in October, while the hottest months are July and August.

The leading white is Xarel·lo, an aromatic white that is dry, and ideal as an aperitif or with shellfish. Principal red varieties include Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Tempranillo; wines produced from these grapes are best suited for lamb, stews and paella or aged cheeses. (Wine/Appellations)
The Penicillin is one of the most successful contemporary classic cocktails out there. It’s a delicious ginger and honey laced Scotch whisky sour with smoky Islay whisky floating on top. (Spirits/Cocktails)
While Pennsylvania does not immediately spark thoughts of wine for most people, it is one of the top ten states in terms of wine production. It is among the top five as far as total grape output, although some of these grapes are sold as table fruit or used in jams. Today there are 200 wineries spread throughout the state, with a total of 14,000 acres of vines. There are five AVA within the state; the Lehigh Valley appellation in southeastern Pennsylvania, is one of the most important. Here the climate is more moderate than much of the rest of the state, and leading varieties include Riesling, Merlot and Chardonnay, along with a few hybrid varieties such as Chambourcin and Vidal. (Wine/Appellations)
Very popular dual-purpose hop for Koelsch, Plisners, Alts, and Dunkels. Delicate floral and spice notes, with fruit and mint in the background. Similar to Hallertauer Mittelfreuh, Hallertauer Tradition, and Aurora. Commercial examples of Perle include: Abita Amber, Uerige Alt, Radeberger Pilsner. (Beer/Hops)
Dual-purpose hop for Koelsch, Plisners, Alts, and Dunkels. Delicate, minty, and spicy "green" hop aromas. Used for American styles attempting to capture a 'German' character, and slightly better at bittering than the German version. Similar to Hallertauer Mittelfreuh, Hallertauer Tradition, and Aurora. Commercial examples of Perle include: Penn Brewing Penn Dark, Sierra Nevada Summerfest. (Beer/Hops)
Pessac-Léognan Blanc
Frequently, the finest wines produced in all of Bordeaux hail from the unattractive, partly urbanized northern Graves appellation of Pessac-Léognan, home to Chateau Haut-Brion and La Mission Haut-Brion. The character of the Cabernet Sauvignon from the gravelly soils of the Graves is, to the student of Bordeaux wines, quite distinct when compared to the Cabernet of the Medoc: Deep, tannic, and frequently opaque in appearance with pure black fruits and a distinct tobacco, cedar, and smoke quality. Haut-Brion and La Mission excepted, the red wines of Pessac-Léognan have never been as fashionable as those from the Medoc, yet they are now often every bit as good and can represent better value.

Pessac-Léognan also produces Bordeaux's finest dry white wine from Sauvignon Blanc and Semillon. Pessac white wines are barrel fermented and oak aged and can often benefit from some years of cellaring. At their best these wines are concentrated, showing melon, citrus,and fig aromas and flavors which deepen with age. (Wine/Appellations)
Pessac-Léognan Rouge
Frequently, the finest wines produced in all of Bordeaux hail from the unattractive, partly urbanized northern Graves appellation of Pessac-Léognan, home to Chateau Haut-Brion and La Mission Haut-Brion. The character of the Cabernet Sauvignon from the gravelly soils of the Graves is, to the student of Bordeaux wines, quite distinct when compared to the Cabernet of the Medoc: Deep, tannic, and frequently opaque in appearance with pure black fruits and a distinct tobacco, cedar, and smoke quality. Haut-Brion and La Mission excepted, the red wines of Pessac-Léognan have never been as fashionable as those from the Medoc, yet they are now often every bit as good and can represent better value.

Pessac-Léognan also produces Bordeaux's finest dry white wine from Sauvignon Blanc and Semillon. Pessac white wines are barrel fermented and oak aged and can often benefit from some years of cellaring. At their best these wines are concentrated, showing melon, citrus,and fig aromas and flavors which deepen with age. (Wine/Appellations)
Petillant is a French term for a lightly sparkling wine. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
A petiole is a stem which attaches a leaf to its main branch or shoot. Petioles are well designed for conducting water, nutrients, sugars and mineral ions between the leaf and the rest of the vine. (Wine/Other)
Petit Verdot
Petit Verdot is a red Bordeaux variety, one of five permitted in a Bordeaux classified wine. It is almost never seen as a stand-alone variety in this region, instead it is a blending component, used primarily to add color to the wine.

The grape's deep, inky purple hue is quite remarkable and perhaps for that reason, it has attracted a handful of producers in California as a stand-alone wine. It is also used in small amounts as a blending grape in certain powerful California reds. The grape is also grown in Chile and Spain.

The flavors are of blackberry, black cherry and plum along with light black spice. Tannins are moderate as is acidity. Pair a Petit Verdot with robust dishes, be it game birds or venison. (Wine/Grapes)
Petite Sirah
Petite Sirah, which is also spelled as Petite Syrah (or even Petit Sirah) is a California red wine with deep color, rich tannins and a good deal of spice. While a few medium and larger-sized producers in California make Petite Sirah, most examples are from smaller artisan producers. These vintners often emphasize the chocolate and plum flavors as well as the chewy tannins.

As these wines are rugged in nature, these often need a few years after release before they are in ideal drinking condition; five to seven years is generally an ideal time frame for best consumption. Pair Petite Sirah with such foods as grilled lamb, pork roasts, stews and game. (Wine/Grapes)
A far from simple mathematical term for quantifying the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. pH is used as a measure of acidity in beverages. It is quite important to producers but its logarithmic scale makes it seem less so to the casual observer. (Wine/Chemistry & Flaws)
See polyphenols. (Wine/Chemistry & Flaws)
Phloem is living plant tissue located just beneath the bark and outside of the cambium layer. Phloem cells conduct sugars and other organic materials downward from the leaves towards the trunk and roots. (Wine/Other)
Photosynthesis is the formation of carbohydrates (sugars) in green tissue of living plants from CO2 and water. The reaction uses sunlight as its energy source and it is catalyzed by chlorophyll. (Wine/Chemistry & Flaws)
Phylloxera is a Latin name for a vine-louse which nearly destroyed the European vineyards in the late 1800s. As a result, most new vineplants are grafted onto a phylloxera- resistant rootstock to ensure proper vine health and adequate bearing. Phylloxera remains a problem. (Wine/Chemistry & Flaws)
Phylloxera Biotype B
Phylloxera Biotype B is a newer mutant of Phylloxera which suddenly appeared in Napa and Sonoma vineyards in the mid 1980s. It successfully attacks and destroys the AXR-1 rootstock (and any fruiting variety grafted onto it), thus killing many of the California North Coast's most valuable vineyards. It will have been the reason for at least 60,000 acres of prime Napa, Sonoma and other California vineyards being pulled out and replanted to other rootstocks by the year 2000. Fortunately, there are many other rootstocks available, many of which are superior to the old AXR-1 in viticultural attributes besides being immune to attack by Phylloxera Types A and B. (Wine/Other)
Chasing a shot of whiskey with tangy pickle brine is a fun way to ease the bite of the spirit for novice imbibers or make whiskey of questionable quality more palatable. (Spirits/Cocktails)
The Piedmont region lies in Italy's Northwest corner at the foot of the Alpine chain bordering France, hence the name Piedmont, meaning "foot of the mountains." This is one of the most important red wine districts in the world. Three red grapes dominate the region—Nebbiolo, Barbera, and Dolcetto. Nebbiolo is responsible for the world class wine of Barolo and Barbaresco. Unfortunately, affordable examples are really a thing of the past.

Barbera, however, is another kettle of fish when it comes to bang for the buck. Barbera is Piedmont's most widely planted variety. It is typically medium bodied and dry with a healthy dose of acidity. Flavors of black cherry and plum framed by earth and the occasional oak barrel are prevalent.

The most famous Barberas come from the vineyards in and around the towns of Alba and Asti. (Yes, this is the same Asti made famous by Asti Spumante.) The Barbera of Alba tends to be biggest of all, showing great power and concentration, while maintaining balance and finesse. Barbera d'Alba is capable of aging ten years and beyond in favorable vintages.

Asti, on the other hand, produces a fruity, less tannic Barbera than Alba, and is best consumed within two to six years of the vintage. Barbera, like most Italian reds, is excellent at the table with a variety of foods. It is marvelous with the Piemontese favorite, Bagna Cauda, a dip of olive oil, anchovies, and garlic. Barbera is also a natural with tomatoes. A simple marinara with a young example is a match made in heaven.

Dolcetto, a variety also from Piedmont, is intensely fruity with less tannin and acid than Barbera. Dolcetto often draws comparison to France's Beaujolais. It varies from village to village but can generally be classified in two basic styles; extraordinarily soft, velvety, and fruity with little tannin, or slightly rugged, with spicy flavors and a nose of toasted almonds. Dolcetto compliments slow cooked stews and roasts, offering fresh and fruity flavors that enliven the dish, but can be equally good as a picnic wine with a light chill. Vintage patterns are quite similar to those of Piemontese Barbera.
The Piemonte DOC, established in 1994, is a catchall for any wine made in the region of Piedmont (Piemonte). As there are no IGT wines in this region, that means that there are many types of DOP wines that cover every spectrum of wine produced in the region. Quite often, a producer will use the Piemonte DOC designation for a wine that is made outside of the DOC or DOCG rules; an example being a Nebbiolo that is blended with another grape, meaning it cannot be labeled as a Barolo or Barbaresco.

While there are a few examples available in the region, wines with a Piemonte DOC label are not seen much outside Piemonte. (Wine/Appellations)
Piemonte DOC
Piemonte DOC is a catchall designation for any wine made in Piemonte (Piedmont). As this region is one of the few in Italy, where there are no IGT wines, every quality wine must be labeled as DOC (or DOCG). This includes everything from sparkling to dry white to red to dessert wines. Most examples that are labeled with a variety (Dolcetto, Barbera, Nebbiolo, Chardonnay) must contain a minimum of 85% of that variety, while for a Moscato, it must be 100% of that grape.

In reality, one rarely sees the Piemonte DOC designation, especially on wines exported to the United States, as there are so many DOP wines in the region. (Wine/Appellations)
Piemonte Dop
Piemonte DOP (or DOC) is a catchall appellation for the region of Piemonte (Piedmont) in northwestern Italy. As there are more than 40 DOCs in Piemonte (as well as 17 DOCG designations), many of the region’s wines are covered under these regulations. Thus as there are no IGT wines in Piemonte (IGT being a term that describes a wine made in a different fashion than the approved DOC or DOCG regulations), the Piemonte DOP was created to identify a wine from the region that is not covered by the various DOC or DOCG regulations. Wines labeled as Piemonte DOP are not seen much; the DOP covers white, red and sparkling wines. (Wine/Appellations)
Dual-purpose hop used in English-style Pale Ales, Brown Ales, and Stouts. Fruit aromatics include grapefruit, pear, berries, and lemon with a touch of spice, cedar, and honey. Full-bodied flavors present a classic English-style bitterness. Similar to Target and Challenger. Commercial examples of Pilgrim include: Young's St. George Ale. (Beer/Hops)
Pimm's Cup
The Pimm's Cup is really just one of the preferred ways to drink a particular distilled spirit, and so the drink took on the brand name. That liqueur is Pimm's No. 1, a gin-based spirit with the flavor of fruit and spice. Adding a mixer as subtle as lemonade enhances its character and turns it into a refreshing summer drink that has long been a favorite in the U.K. (read more about the history of Pimm's and find a traditional recipe).

Ginger ale or lemon-lime soda are occasionally used to replace the lemonade and at other times, club soda is added to the original recipe. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Piña Colada
Almost everyone has heard of the Piña Colada (thanks in part to the 1979 Rupert Holmes song "Escape (The Piña Colada Song)") and almost just as many people have probably tried one. It is one of the most popular tropical cocktails for a very good reason: it is the perfect creamy mix of pineapple, coconut, and rum.

This shaken version is a more recent adaptation of the original Frozen Piña Colada from the 1950's. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Pinot Blanc
Pinot Blanc is a white grape that is a genetic mutation of Pinot Noir. It is often compared to Chardonnay and vinified the same way, though plenty of crisper expressions are out there as well as sweet dessert wines.

Wines made from Pinot Blanc are most often found in Alsace and Burgundy in France, many Italian regions (there known as Pinot Bianco), and Germany and Austria (there known as Weissburgunder). Pinot Blanc can also be found in many new world locations such as Argentina, Canada, and the United States.

Pinot Blanc has a medium to full body and light, crisp flavors of apple, melon, pear, and orchard fruits. It is best paired with light seafood and mild sauces or cheeses. (Wine/Grapes)
Pinot Grigio
Pinot Grigio – aka Pinot Gris – has become one of Italy’s most popular white wines in America. Popular to the point of Indian, Greek and even Spanish restaurants offering at least one version on their wine list.

Truth be told, while Pinot Grigio in Italy can be an excellent wine – though hardly great – the typical version has little to offer save for some faint aromas of apple, pear and dried flowers. As Pinot Grigio has become a commodity, there are now hundreds, perhaps thousands of producers across Italy (and even some in America) that produce a simple, uncomplicated version that has little complexity or weight on the palate- the ultimate summer sipper.

However, producers in cool climates such as Friuli, Alto Adige and Valle d’Aosta (where it is usually referred to as Pinot Gris) do make excellent version, generally from high elevation vineyards that have twenty or more years of age. These wines have plenty of spice as well as richness and offer impressive complexity. Pair these finer examples with vegetable or seafood risotto, lighter poultry or pork medallions. (Wine/Grapes)
Pinot Gris
Pinot Gris is the same grape as Pinot Grigio, but when a wine is identified as a Pinot Gris, it is generally a more full-bodied, more complex, more age-worthy wine.

The best examples of Pinot Gris come from Alsace in northeastern France and Oregon. These wines are have excellent weight on the palate, good acidity and ripe apple and pear fruit with a distinct spiciness and a dry finish. Most examples are aged only in steel, but some producers in Alsace will age Pinot Gris in large, older wooden casks, which can add a touch of spice as well as additional texture.

There are also some sweeter versions of Pinot Gris produced in Alsace; these are labeled as vendange tardives or grains nobles.

There are also versions of Pinot Gris from the far northwestern Italian region of Valle d'Aosta as well as some promising examples from Oregon and California in the United States.

Consume most versions of Pinot Gris at an early age, from two to five years. The finest versions of Alsatian Pinot Gris (from Grand Cru vineyards) can be enjoyed at 15-20 years of age.

Food pairings that work well with Pinot Gris include smoked fish, sushi, Asian cuisine, chicken with cream sauce or veal, pork or poultry with mushrooms. (Wine/Grapes)
Pinot Noir
Pinot Noir is one of the world’s most fascinating red varieties. While many red grapes produce wines of power and youthful intensity, a wine made from Pinot Noir is often more refined with higher acidity and lower levels of tannins. The spiritual home for Pinot Noir is Burgundy, where it is produced in many styles, from very light to examples that can age for two to three decades.

Pinot Noirs tend to have aromas and flavors red cherry fruit, while some offer notes of wild strawberry, plum or even floral notes such as carnation and red roses. As tannins in Pinot Noir are not as pronounced as in a grape such as Cabernet Sauvignon or Nebbiolo, most Pinot Noirs can be enjoyed upon release, which is usually two to three years after the vintage.

Burgundy works extremely well for Pinot Noir, as it is a cool climate; a warm or hot climate would not bring out the perfumes of the variety. Thus growers in several countries have planted Pinot Noir in their coolest regions, looking to emulate Burgundy. These include the Willamette Valley in Oregon; Russian River Valley, Santa Lucia Highlands and Sta. Rita Hills in California (among others); Central Otago in New Zealand; Casablanca and San Antonio Valleys in Chile and the Rheinhessen, Pfalz and Baden in Germany (where the grape is known as Spatburgunder). The concept of terroir – a wine is the producet of its specific environment – is most often associated with Pinot Noir.

Pinot Noirs tend to pair well with poultry (duck a l’orange is a classic match), game birds and even certain types of seafoods (as tannins are low), such as salmon, tuna and halibut. (Wine/Grapes)
Pinotage is the signature red variety of South Africa; it was developed there in 1925 as a cross of Pinot Noir and Cinsaut. The wines made from Pinotage are quite ripe, with flavors of wild cherry and blueberry and have a bit of a wild streak to them with aggressive tannins. Most are reasonable priced from $10-$15 and are thus meant for consumption within three to five years. Pair these wines with stews, duck, roast pork or tangy cheeses.

There are also a few producers of Pinotage in the US as well as New Zealand.

Though thought of as distinctly New World, South Africa's wine industry is actually over 300 years old. With recent governmental changes, South Africa has left its long period of international isolation. Wine drinkers in the US are beginning to see more and more of the fabled "Cape" wines on the domestic market. These wines actually share more in common with Old World styles than with their New World counterparts.

Produced in a cooler climate with a distinct maritime influence, South African wines are generally a couple of degrees lower in alcohol than those from Australia or California, and have higher levels of acidity with relatively firm structures. All in all, the national style shares much in common with that of France. Balance and moderation are the buzzwords, making these wines exceptionally friendly at the table. South African wines do have some unique signatures, however. Fans note a distinctive minerally flavor, present particularly in the reds, that we usually described as tar-like.

This nuance can often be found in pinotage, a wine unique to the area. A cross between pinot noir and cinsault (an obscure grape from the south of France) pinotage is a lighter- to mid-weight red with lots of character. It is one of the few wines in the world that, when fully ripe, smells like blueberries! Blueberries and tar or not, South Africa produces a range of distinctive wines to tempt the adventurous. (Wine/Grapes)
A pipe is a large barrel or cask used for storing, transporting, or aging wine, especially dessert wine. Pipes vary in size between about 110 and 140 U.S. gallons. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Pipers River
Pipers River is Tasmania's most northerly wine region, situated in the hills to the north of the island's second-largest town, Launceston, and to the northeast of the Tamar Valley. This is a cool climate with intense sunshine and the combination of the two provides for a long growing season.

Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, and sparkling wines made from the two utterly dominate production and this area is becoming a hotbed of international investment and exploration with regard to sparkling wines. Jansz "Methode Tasmanoise," stemming from an initial investment by none other than Louis Roederer, is leading the way in this regard. (Wine/Appellations)
Pisco Sour
I fell in love with the Pisco Sour in a Peruvian restaurant where many other pisco drinks adorned the menu. This cocktail is refreshing and one of the most popular drinks in Peru and Chile, where pisco is typically produced.

Pisco is an unaged brandy but it has unique characteristics and this simple sour drink is a great introduction to it. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Planter's Punch
Planter's Punch is a classic rum drink that first appeared in print in a 1908 edition of the New York Times. Like many other drinks, this has a disputed origin: one claim refers to the Planter's Hotel in St. Louis and another tells of a Jamaican planter's wife who concocted it to cool down the workers. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Plonk is a slang word for poor quality wine. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Poland has a long history of winemaking, dating back to the 9th century when Benedictine and Cistercian monks controlled production (and most of consumption, too). Climate changes in the mid 16th century forced a switch from wine to beer and vodka and seemingly constant wars devastated wine production until the fall of communism in Europe.

Recently, the country's wine industry trajectory has turned a one-eighty. Wine sales have increased almost 60 percent in the past decade and local production has increased as well. Without government subsidies, winemaking in Poland has proved very expensive, though many efforts are being made to set the stage for the commercial success of Polish wine. (Wine/Appellations)
Political Area
When used in regards to wine, a political area is a viticultural area defined by political borders as opposed to geographic or geological divisions. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Polyphenols are a chemical class of compounds which occur naturally in wine, giving the wine an astringent, bitter or mouth-drying taste sensation. Tannins and grape skin pigments are two prominent classes of polyphenols. (Wine/Chemistry & Flaws)
Pomace is the solid residue (primarily skins, seeds and stems) left behind after juicing or fermenting grapes. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Pomerol is a tiny commune on the Right Bank of Bordeaux with a giant reputation. Up until 1936 it was considered a part of the wider Saint-Emilion appellation, but since that time has labeled its wines as Pomerol. Pomerol is roughly one-seventh the size of Saint-Emilion and similar in size to the commune of Saint-Julien on the Left Bank.

While Pomerol is now one of the most prestigious of the Bordeaux sub-regions, this is a fairly new phenomenon. Pomerol was not included in any of the historical Bordeaux classifications as its reputation began to really grow post war, due in large part to the growing fame of Chateau Petrus.

As with Saint-Emilion, Pomerol is based more on Cabernet Franc and Merlot, but in Pomerol, Merlot accounts for 80% of the vineyard area and dominates the blends, with Cabernet Franc usually comprising no more than five- to 20%. This makes Pomerol the most expensive and coveted Merlot in the world (Sideways effect be damned). Today, Pomerol has about 150 producers and average production for these tends to be quite small. (Wine/Appellations)
Pomino lies in the mountains to the east of Florence and overlaps in part with the Chianti Rufina sub-zone. It has long been recognized within Tuscany as an excellent region for red and white wines and the noble Albizi family and the bishops of Florence had estates here for hundreds of years. The vineyards are high-altitude, ranging from 1,600 to 2,300 feet above sea level.

Uniquely, Pomino has had significant plantings of French varietals such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Chardonnay since the 1800s. This happened when the Albizi family lived in political exile in Provence for a time and brought the varietals back with them on their return.

Pomino is today commercially dominated by Frescobaldi, who owns nine estates with nearly 2,500 acres of vineyards in the heart of the appellation. They produce a wide range of wines that are widely distributed internationally and often provide very good value for money.

The DOC allows a great deal of latitude and includes varietal Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Merlot, and Pinot Noir, all of which must be 85% of the varietal indicated. White blends must be a minimum 70% of Chardonnay, Pinot Bianco, and/or Pinot Grigio; and red blends must be a minimum 50% of Sangiovese and a maximum 50% of Merlot and/or Pinot Noir. (Wine/Appellations)
The very name seems to suggest muscularity and depth: Pommard is where the biggest, toughest red wines of the Côte de Beaune are to be found. The style is a factor of soil type. Looking at a typical glass of dark, foursquare Pommard and ruby, perfumed wine from next-door Volnay is a stark reminder of how much specific location in a geographically small area can make such a dramatic difference to the style of Pinot Noir in Burgundy. Pommard contains no Grand Crus but has 28 Premier Crus and also produces a relatively large amount of Village wine. (Wine/Appellations)
Porn Star Martini
A fruity-sweet crowd-pleaser with champagne served on the side. Adapted from a drink created by Douglas Ankrah at LAB Bar, London, England. (Spirits/Cocktails)
Port is the best known of the triumvirate of famed fortified wines. (The other two being Sherry and Madeira.) Port is sweet, almost always red, and usually enjoyed after dinner. The name is derived from the city of Oporto, Portugal's second largest. The name Port has followed the same plight of name larceny that has befallen the great wine regions of Champagne, Burgundy, and Chablis to name but a few. Fortunately, New World wine producers have for the most part stopped pirating the use of famous wine region names but for the glaring exception of fortified wines. This fact so troubled the original Portuguese shippers that in 1968 they began to specially label their wines destined for the US with the name "Porto." This was to no avail as the name Porto never really caught on, and wine producers in the New World continue to label their sweet red fortified wines as Port.

There are several different styles of Port, many of which are beyond value considerations. New World examples vary greatly in style and price; however, the US and Australia still offer the most bang for the buck, as highly rated wines from both nations are often in the $10 range. Portuguese values can generally be found in Vintage Character or Ruby style Ports.

In general terms Port is made by crushing red grapes and beginning fermentation in the usual way. In 3 to 4 days the fermenting crushed grapes have reached an alcohol content of about 6% with 10% residual sugar remaining. At this point the juice is drained to vats containing a very strong (over 150 proof) neutral spirit. The ratio of wine to spirit is typically 4 to 1. The high alcohol environment is very inhospitable to yeast, thus stopping fermentation. The resulting Port contains 19 to 21 percent alcohol and 9 to 10 percent residual sugar.

There are two basic types of Port, Vintage Port and wood aged Port. Vintage Port is the rarest, being made from selected lots of wine in only the best or "Vintage" years. A Vintage year is declared approximately 3 to 4 times a decade and is usually done in agreement by the major houses, but not always. The wine spends only two years in cask before it is bottled. It retains its fresh grapey character, having been affected minimally by wood. Vintage Ports are presumed to be aged in the bottle, as it is customary to enjoy them when they have matured for a decade or more. Fine examples can improve over the span of five decades and beyond. As one may suspect true Portuguese Vintage Port is expensive, starting at roughly $25 and rising sharply from there.

Wood aged Ports are influenced by extended periods of cask aging, resulting in a wine that is ready to drink upon release. They are most often a blend from several Port vineyards and vintages with the exception of Late-Bottled Vintage Port (LBV). Late-Bottled Vintage Port is a blend from various vineyards in the same vintage. These wines are handled much like Vintage Port but are typically aged for 5 to 6 years in cask before being bottled. Sadly, most LBV Ports have exceeded $15. Serve at room temperature and don't be alarmed by a little sediment, it is perfectly natural. You can minimize sediment in the glass by up-righting the bottle several hours before serving.

Ruby Port, and its finer incarnation of Vintage-Character Port, is a house styled blend. These wines are deeply colored, fruity, and sweet. Ruby Port typically sees 3 years of cask age while Vintage-Character Port is aged as long as an LBV. Vintage-Character Ports are the best of the Ruby Ports coming just shy of standards necessary for Vintage Port. These wines are often great bargains.

Tawny Port is an extreme departure in style from the others as extended wood aging alters both appearance and flavor. These wines are a blend of several vintages. The color ranges from ruby to soft amber or “tawny” for which the style is named. Tawny Port varies greatly in price, escalating with age. The best examples give an indication of age, typically in increments of decades from 10 to 30 years. Value priced Tawny Port rarely gives an indication of age and may be “made” by blending red and white Ports. Tawny is lighter and drier than other Port styles, exhibiting a wonderful nutty flavor. They may be ideal for those who generally find Port to be too grapey and cloying.

In Australia, Port is an important style with a long-standing tradition. In the earliest days of the industry Port was the primary concern of most every vintner. Until the 1960s, Port made up roughly 75% of domestic sales. Today, as in the past, Aussie Port is typically made with the nation's top red varietal, Shiraz. The variety is well suited to the task of fortified wine as its rustic brambly flavors are accentuated by the elevated sugars and alcohol. Be careful when pairing these wines with desserts or cheeses, as many examples are twice as sweet as their Portuguese counterparts.

US Port can be a great value, largely due to the fact that it is under-appreciated. This despite the fact that US Ports can be surprisingly good, as California’s interior and many other parts of the country provide the sort of sunshine and searing heat that these wines thrive on. In California the style accounts for about 3% of total wine production. Many varieties have been used, including a few stalwarts that persist with traditional Portuguese grapes. More often, however, Zinfandel or even Cabernet will find its way into the Port vat. In eastern states, Port varieties and subsequent styles vary greatly. Consult the accompanying tasting notes for flavor, sugar, and stylistic information.
It is likely that we will always have value Port, as the major Portuguese houses seem committed to offering an "every day" Port. Port in the value price range will not improve in the bottle and is therefore ready to drink the moment it is purchased. Typically these wines will not vary from year to year. Port is most often enjoyed after the meal, either with dessert or as a dessert. Serve at a cool room temperature. Be sure to try the classic pairing of Stilton, an English Blue cheese, and Port. (Wine/Appellations)
Portugal is a famous wine-producing country in Western Europe, bordering Spain; it is ranked as the 11th largest in the world for wine production. While it is best known for the glorious Port wines from the Porto (Duoro), there are many other excellent products emerging from here; these include whites such as Vinho Verde and Alvarinho as well as powerful dry reds made from the Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz varieties.

There are fourteen recognized wine regions, with the most famous in the north, including Porto, Dão and Vinho Verde. Another important area is Madeira, located off the southeast coast; here some of the longest-lived wines in the world are produced.

Many of the regions are known for regional wines, medium-bodied and meant for youthful consumption; little by little, however, small wine estates are being established, as in the southern region of Setubal. The Muscatel grape, used to produce lush, sweet dessert wines, is a principal variety in Setubal.

For Vinho Verde and Alvarinho, the flavors are of tropical fruits, apricots and citrus; pair these wines with salads and Asian cuisine. For the more full-bodied reds, such as those produced from Touriga Nacional, pair these with lamb and aged sirloin.

While Portugal has enjoyed a regal wine history thanks to the world-famous Port wines, today more styles of wines, along with more aggressive marketing has led to a great awareness of the country among wine lovers around the world. Though small, exports are beginning to increase, especially in the United States; prices are varied, making it difficult to create a sound bite for the country’s wines. But today, Portugal is known for more than Port, and the future looks promising. (Wine/Appellations)
Pot Still
A pot still is one of the simplest type of distillation apparatus. This includes a pot, or closed pan, in which to boil the fermented product, connected to a condenser which will catch the vapor, cool it and collect the condensate in the product container. Pot still distilled sprits have a distinctive character when compared with that from the more modern, continuous stills. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Potter Valley
The Potter Valley AVA in Mendocino County is situated just east of the Redwood Valley, near the border with Lake County. Vines are planted between 900 and 1100 feet; soils are bedrock with layers of clay and sand. Rainfall is higher here than in other parts of Mendocino, making this an ideal zone for white grapes. Riesling, at almost 45% is the leading variety, followed by Sauvignon Blanc and then Pinot Noir; a small amount of Zinfandel, Chardonnay and Gewurztraminer. (Wine/Appellations)
The hilly, warmer appellation of Pouilly-Fuissé offers pure, varietally expressive Chardonnay, seeing little or no oak, at a price that makes it competitive with good Chardonnay from all over the world. Warm vintages in Pouilly-Fuissé, produce many fat, fruity wines with opulent flavors and moderate acidity.

Most producers in Pouilly-Fuissé now boast a Vieilles Vignes bottling, fashioned after the highly regarded Château de Fuissé Vieilles Vignes. Generally these will see at least a proportion of fermentation in new barrels and are of a richer, more buttery nature. The best of these come from 30–40 year old parcels, and have had the kind of winemaking lavished on them that elevates them beyond most people’s perception of Pouilly-Fuissé. (Wine/Appellations)
Pouilly-Fume, along with Sancerre, comes from the Upper Loire Valley, which is actually the most southern and easterly sector. This region is dominated by Sauvignon Blanc and is thought of as the ancestral home for classic, varietal expressions of the grape, while Pinot Noir is used for the more limited production of reds and rose.

Pouilly-Fume is produced around the town of Pouilly-sur-Loire on the opposite bank of the Loire River from Sancerre. The vineyards of Pouilly are marked by a type of flint known as "silex" that is interspersed with limestone. This imparts a sharp, minerally quality to the wines.

Pouilly only produces white wines, while Sancerre also produces red and rose from Pinot Noir. In general terms Pouilly-Fume tends to be a bit fuller and richer in texture than Sancerre and Sancerre has a sharper, more exuberantly varietal edge. Much depends on producer and while classically unoaked, some produce luxury cuvees that have been oak aged. Nonetheless, Sancerre and Pouilly Fume are among the world's best sources for Sauvignon Blanc and both can provide great value. (Wine/Appellations)
Pourriture Noble
Pourriture noble is a french term for noble rot, or Botrytis cinerea. (Wine/Other)
Powdery Mildew
Powdery mildew is a fungal disease of grape vines which, unlike most fungal diseases, thrives in dry climates. Also called oidium, it occurs in most of the wine regions of the world. This is the most troublesome fungus disease of grapes in California by far. It can be controlled by timely application of sulfur dust directly onto the vine leaves and immature fruit. New fungicides have been introduced in recent years which greatly improve a vine's recovery from severe attacks. (Wine/Other)
See parts per million. (Wine/Chemistry & Flaws)
Precipitation is the sudden formation of solids within a solution which then settle out. The solids normally settle to the bottom as a sludge and can be easily removed by filtration, centrifuging or, many times, by simply racking. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Premières Côtes de Bordeaux
Press is the act of squeezing the last remaining drops of juice or wine from pomace. It is also the name of the machinery used to do such a thing. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Press Juice
Press juice is the juice obtained not by draining but by pressing fresh pomace. Is is usually far more tannic (often bitter) than drained or lightly pressed (free run) juice. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Press Wine
Press wine is wine obtained by pressing newly fermented red wine from spent pomace. It is generally more tannic and inferior in qualty to free-run wine. Press wine is sometimes used in blending to balance free-run wine that lacks tannin. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Pressed Pomace
The spent pomace after pressing has removed all the usable juice or wine is called pressed pomace. Pressed pomace can be sweet or dry, depending upon whether the pressing took place before or after fermentation was complete. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Prickly is a taste sensation derived from small amounts of residual carbon dioxide in wines. Often a prickly character can be noticed in white wines fermented cold (the lowering of the temperature tends to integrate more carbon dloxide than usual); its appreciation is relative to the individual taster. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
Pride of Ringwood
Bittering hop with an aggressive, slightly citrus flavor and woody aromas of cedar & oak. Used in lighter English styles or whenever an "Australian" character is desired. Somewhat similar (but not really) to Galena or Cluster. Commercial examples of Pride of Ringwood include: Foster's Lager, Cooper's Sparkling Ale, Buffalo Bill Tasmanian Devil. (Beer/Hops)
Primary Fermentation
Primary fermentation is the conversion of non-alcoholic wort to beer, where most sugars have been consumed by the yeast. (Beer/Production)
Primitivo is practically synonymous with Zinfandel, they are closely related grapes from the same Croatian ancestor known as Crljenak. Primitivo is the Italian version of Crljenak and Zinfandel is the American. Confusingly, in the United States a winemaker may not label the Primitivo clone as Zinfandel and vice versa, but in Europe the names are interchangeable.

Primitivo is mostly grown in the Apulia region of Italy. Like Zinfandel, Primitivo produces lush fruity red wines with soft tannins and higher alcohol. Primitivo is a natural with spicy tomato-based pasta, spare ribs and game. (Wine/Grapes)
Primitivo di Manduria
Primitivo di Manduria is a large zone in southern Puglia for wines made from the Primitivo grape. This part of the region, near Brindisi, is quite warm, as with most of Puglia, making it ideal for ripening red varieties. Primitivo itself, similar to Zinfandel from California (but not identical) is a robust red with plenty of spice and dark fruit flavors, along with medium-weight tannins. Most producers age these wines in small oak barrels to ratchet up the color and spicy components. While there are sweet versions produced, these are rarely seen outside the region. Expect to pay anywhere from $12- $30 for these wines, with the pricier versions being made in fuller-bodied style that can drink well for seven to ten years. (Wine/Appellations)
Priorat is a small wine region in northeastern Spain in Catalonia; over the past 10 to 15 years, it has become one of the world's best known.

The principal grape used in these wines is Garnacha (Grenache), which flourishes in this arid, hot territory; the granite and quartz soils are poor and yields are small, even tiny. The miniscule production certainly means intense, deeply flavored grapes.

Priorat wine is generally aged for 12 months; a crianza has been matured for one year in wood, followed by one year's aging in bottle. A Reserva is aged for one year in oak and then two years in bottle before release in the market, while a Gran Reserva has been aged for two years in wood and two years in bottle.

There are also Priorat wines made from Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Syrah. The small production of whites are crafted from Garnacha Blanca, Macabeo and Chenin Blanc, among other varieties.

The Garnacha-based Priorat wines are a robust offering, generally produced for the long haul; many peak after 10-12 years following the vintage date. Pair these hearty, spicy reds with beef, roast lamb and pork. (Wine/Appellations)
Processed is a term used to describe many jug wines. It connotes, in both smell and taste, a wine that has been put through so many machines, has had so many things added to and/or taken away from it, and has been so manufactured as to appeal to the great bland palate that it is utterly without charm or character. As a more familiar example, 'Cheese food' is processed; Stilton isn't. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
Prpduced is a legal term used by the U.S. governing authority, T.T.F., to define the moment when fermenting grape "juice" becomes "wine" legally. Historically, "made," "vinted," "cellared," "perfected" and other similar terms were not as legally restrictive as "produced." when stated on a wine label. However, regulatory changes in the early 1990s now make the terms "produced" and "made" identical in meaning. (Wine/Classification & Attributes Other)
Prohibition refers to the constitutional ban on the sale of alcoholic beverages in the United States from 1920-1933, repealed by the 21st Amendment to the Constitution. (Beer/People and Places)
Proof is a measure of alcohol content in a beverage. In the United States the proof of a beverage is determined by doubling its percentage ABV. (Spirits/Classification & Attributes)
Proprietary is an American labeling term that implies that the bottling or producing winery owns the name so that competing wineries are barred from its use. E.g. Gallo's "Paisano" or Phelps "Insignia". (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Prosecco di Conegliano
Prosecco di Conegliano is exactly the same DOC as Prosecco di Valdobbiadene; the actual name of the DOC is Prosecco di Conegliano Valdobbiadene. The regulations are the same for each; the only difference would be the town of origin for the grapes, as these are the two main villages of this DOC. (Wine/Appellations)
Prosecco di Treviso DOC
Prosecco di Treviso DOC is a sparkling wine from the province of Treviso in the northern Italian region of Veneto. While there are various designations for Prosecco made in Treviso, this is a DOC wine, separate from the DOCG Prosecco made in the Conegliano Valdobbiadene and Asolo zones. The principal grape in this wine is Glera – formerly known as Prosecco – and the wine is made according the Charmat method, where the bubbles emerge in a secondary fermentation in a steel tank.

Prosecco di Treviso, as with most examples of Prosecco from this area, is light to medium-bodied and is meant to be consumed in its youth, to enjoy its liveliness and freshness. Typically, this is enjoyed as an aperitif, although it does pair well with lighter salads. (Wine/Appellations)
Prosecco di Valdobbiadene
Prosecco di Valdobbiadene refers to Prosecco sparkling wines that originate from the Conegliano Valdobbiadene area in the province of Treviso in Italy's Veneto region. Recently this area was designated as DOCG (see entry), to differentiate it from Prosecco made from other zones in Italy (as with those made in Friuli, for example). The primary grape is Glera (85% minimum), formerly known as Prosecco; other varieties allowed in small percentages include Pinot Grigio, Pinot Bianco, Chardonnay and Verdiso. Most examples are moderately priced ($14-$18), are lightly sweet, and are meant for early consumption. (Wine/Appellations)
Prosecco DOC
Prosecco DOC refers to a category of sparkling wines from the Veneto and Friuli regions in northern Italy. The wines are either made in a frizzante or fully sparkling style. Wines can be of varying sweetness levels, ranging from Brut to Extra Dry to Demi-Sec and Sec (from driest to sweetest). The DOC regulations were changed in 2009 to recognize the examples of Prosecco from the the communes of Conegliano-Valdobbiadene; these wines were designated as DOCG, while other examples of Prosecco are DOC, as long as they conform to these particular standards. (Wine/Appellations)
Prosecco DOCG
Prosecco DOCG refers to two approved wines named Prosecco; those from the Conegliano-Valdobbiadene area, and those form the Asolo area; both zones are located in the Italian region of Veneto.

As Prosecco became an enormously popular sparkling wine in the 1980s and 1990s, officials in Italy wanted to separate the traditional zones in Veneto from other areas where Prosecco was being produced (the neighboring region of Friuli, for example). Thus the DOCG stamp of approval was granted to the examples of Prosecco from Conegliano-Valdobbiadene in the northern Venetian province of Treviso. This is the heart and soul of Prosecco, and most of the finest examples are from this hilly area.

A second DOCG was granted to the Prosecco of the Asolo area, also in Veneto, but farther south and west. Known as Asolo Prosecco DOCG (or Colli Asolani Prosecco DOCG), this is an area near the Venetian Alps; plantings here reach as high as 1500 feet above sea level.

The thinking was that by creating separate DOCG zones, consumers would know that the finest examples of Prosecco are DOCG and not DOC. This is generally true; however, having two DOCG areas has certainly created some confusion.

Both examples of Prosecco DOCG are primarily produced with the Glera grape variety; ironically, this grape was referred to as Prosecco for decades. The focus on protecting the Prosecco name no doubt caused the change to the historical term Glera. There are other varieties allowed in Prosecco in small percentages (such as Chardonnay and Trebbiano), but rest assured that most examples of Prosecco are indeed 100% Glera.

These DOCG Prosecco are delightful sparking wines, with perfumes of white peaches and white flowers. They are medium-bodied with pleasing, but not too high acidity and are more pleasing to a greater number of consumers who do not favor high acid sparkling wines. The overwhelming majority of these Proseccos are made according to the Charmat (or Martinotti) method, where the second fermentation takes place in a tank, and not in the bottle (as with Champagne). (Wine/Appellations)
Provincia di Pavia IGT
The Provincia di Pavia IGT covers a wide range of wines produced from grapes grown in the province of Pavia in north central Lombardy. In most Italian regions, the IGT designation was created as a catch all, for wines that did not fall under the approved DOP regulations. However, since there is very little wine produced in the province of Pavia, this IGT designation is rarely seen. When it is used, it can encompass, dry whites, dry reds, passito and sparkling wines. Varieties most commonly found in Pavia are Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Pinot Grigio, Pinot Bianco, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. (Wine/Appellations)
Prune is a common descriptor for red wines, particularly warmer climate new world red wines. It is also sometimes sensed in old Portos and in American Ports of some interest. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Tasting Terms)
Pruning is the act of cutting off various parts of grape vines, usually in winter when the vines are dormant. Pruning develops the shapes of vines when they are young and controls the growth, fruit quantity (and therefore, quality) of producing vines. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Public Houses
A public house is an establishment that sells alcoholic beverages on-premise; pubs, taverns, and bars. (Beer/People and Places)
Puget Sound
The Puget Sound AVA is the only wine region in Washington located west of the Columbia Mountains. The Puget Sound is a giant body of water that stretches from the Canadian border in the north to Olympia in the south, with the city of Seattle on its eastern shores. The sound is covered with bucolic islands and it is on these islands that vineyards are located.

This is a cool and rainy region with a pronounced maritime influence. As such, the region is planted to hybrids on the whole, with a smattering of Pinot Noir, Pinot Gris, and Chardonay. There are less than 100 acres under vine in the area and a dozen wineries source grapes here, though most wineries located in the area source the majority of their grapes from the Columbia Valley. Whidbey Island Winery is a major producer, and somewhat curiously, the famous boutique winery, Andrew Will, is located on Vashon Island, though all of their wines are sourced from grapes grown east of the Cascades. (Wine/Appellations)
Puglia is situated in the far southeast of Italy; it has affectionately been referred to as "the heel of the boot" for many years. Puglia has ranked at or near the top of production levels for all Italian regions for decades, as vineyards are planted throughout the region, along the coast and inland. There are 30 DOC wines of Puglia and four DOCG wines; some are tiny, such as Cacc'e mmitte di Lucera, produced only in a small zone in the province of Foggia, while other DOC wines, while a few, such as Aleatico di Puglia, are produced throughout the region. Less than 5% of all Puglian wine is DOP. Total production is about 70% red.

The Puglia IGT encompasses red, white, rosé, passito and frizzante wines made throughout the region. Most wines made in the regions either fall under a specific DOP (e.g., Salice Salentino, Brindisi) or another IGT, such as Salento or Tarantino. Most wine identified simply as Puglia IGT are found only in their immediate zones. (Wine/Appellations)
Puglia Igp
Puglia is situated in the far southeast of Italy; it has affectionately been referred to as "the heel of the boot" for many years. The Puglia IGP encompasses red, white, rosé, passito and frizzante wines made throughout the region. Most wines made in the regions either fall under a specific DOP (e.g., Salice Salentino, Brindisi) or another IGP, such as Salento or Tarantino. Most wine identified simply as Puglia IGP are found only in their immediate zones. (Wine/Appellations)
Puglia Nero di Troia IGP
Nero di Troia is an ancient dark red wine grape from the Puglia IGP (Indication Géographique Protégée, formerly IGT) wine region of Italy. Puglia is situated in the far southeast of Italy and has affectionately been referred to as "the heel of the boot" for many years. Nero di Troia, also known as Uva di Troia, is named after the Puglian town of Troia. Long used as a blending grape, primarily with Montepulciano and Primitivo, it is more recently being vinified on its own with with good-to-excellent results when cultivated properly. Varietal characteristics include: bright spicy berry fruit, silky tannins, and a suggestion of tobacco. Lamb and wild game are excellent and very traditional pairings. (Wine/Appellations)
Puisseguin St. Emilion
The Right Bank of Bordeaux, due east of the city, encompasses the ancient town of Saint-Emilion and the nearby commune of Pomerol. The vineyards of both communes are planted heavily to Merlot and Cabernet Franc, which favors the cooler, often richer soils here more-so than those found in the Médoc. Saint-Emilion is a complex region with many soil variations within a small area. Nonetheless, with the Medoc as a frame of reference, the character of right bank wines can be said to be a degree richer in alcohol, and more fruit-centered with more supple, quicker maturing tannins: All traits which have endeared them to modern wine drinkers. Pomerol is a much smaller and more compact appellation, about the size of Margaux. Its wines are often more consistent in a given vintage and bargains are few among these sought-after wines.

Bargain seekers should pay particular attention to the outlying Saint-Emilion satellite appellations, recognizable by having their commune names hyphenated before Saint-Emilion on the label. The right bank proper also encompasses Fronsac, Côte de Bourg and Côtes de Blaye all of whose wines attract far less media interest and carry much lower price tags.

Merlot on the Right Bank is harvested, on average, two weeks earlier than the Cabernet Sauvignon of the Left Bank. This simple fact makes generalizations about the character of a vintage in Bordeaux difficult to encapsulate by assigning a number to a vintage in "Bordeaux." Vintages that bring rain at harvest can be poor in the Medoc and much more successful on the Right Bank. In such cases, getting the grapes in before the rain is the difference in quality in Bordeaux, and this is no small matter in a region that often gives estate managers anxiety attacks as rain clouds darken the sky when vines are heavy with almost ripe grapes.

The phenomenon of the Saint-Emilion garagiste, the small scale winemaker with little more than a garage and a plot of vines, has grabbed the attention of the fine wine world with deeply concentrated, tiny production wines that command hefty prices. Garagistes have been providing much of the buzz of excitement in the region in recent years and their wines continue to set new price records in the fine wine world. (Wine/Appellations)
The sleepy town of Puligny-Montrachet can lay claim to being the spiritual home of Chardonnay, being host or part host (some overlap into neighboring Chassagne) to four Grand Cru vineyards and 23 Premier Cru vineyards. Chardonnay can reach an extra-ordinary level of ripeness and concentration from the Grand Cru vineyards, and none more so than Le Montrachet. These rare and highly expensive wines have set the benchmark for power, intensity, finesse, and longevity that so many New World Chardonnays have aimed to emulate in spirit.

Puligny-Montrachet Premier Cru is a more affordable, though increasingly pricey proposition. The style of wine will vary but it will generally have more minerality and taut citrus character than richer wines from neighboring Chassagne. The bulk of the appellation produces Village wine which can be of excellent quality from good producers and disappointing from lesser negociants and producers. (Wine/Appellations)
Pulque is a beverage of fermented agave sap, traditional in central Mexico. (Beer/Classification & Attributes)
Pump Over
To pump over is to pump wine out from a lower valve of a fermenting tank up onto the top of the fermenting mass in order to keep the solid "cap" of skins wet. This is a method during fermentation of red wine that helps to achieve complete extraction of color and flavor from the skins. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Pumping Over
Pumping over, in beer, is the circulation of wort in a fermentation tank so that the yeast is evenly distributed throughout the liquid. (Beer/Production)
Punch Down
To punch down is to push the cap down into the fermenting liquid to wet it and facilitate color and flavor extraction. This is the traditional method, but it can only be used for small tanks. Larger tanks are "pumped over." (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
A puncheon is a wine cask, larger than a standard barrel, now used more for Rum than for wine. The size varies, but is usually about 100 gallons. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
The punt is the concave indentation in the bottom of certain wine bottles, especially those containing sparkling wine. (Wine/Service)
Pupitre is the French name for the hinged, wooden "A-Frame" rack used for riddling Champagne bottles prior to disgorging. (Wine,Beer,Spirits,Sake,Mead/Production)
Pyment is a particular sub-category of melomels, where the fruit in question is specifically: Grapes. It is important to note that the grape juice should be fermented with the honey, rather than blended in afterwards. ‘Mulsum’ is a historic variety of pyment that generally refers to the post-fermentation blend of wine and honey (and sometimes water or sea-water). Both red and white grapes may be used; ones made with white grapes are sometimes called "white mead." The best have enticing aromas of honey, custard and tropical fruits and are made in a dessert style. (Wine/Classification & Attributes)
Methopyrazines, more commonly referred to as pyrazines, are source of herbal notes in wine that can be quite polarizing for drinkers. Love it or hate it the bell pepper or green peppercorn notes of Cabernets and Carmenère, as well as the green herbal, gooseberry notes of Sauvignon Blanc can be attributed to the presence of pyrazines in the grapes. Exposure to sunlight, delayed harvest-time, and warm weather can reduce pyrazines, but many wine-lovers seek out these green flavors opting for cooler-weather Cabernets and New Zealand Sauvignon Blancs. (Wine/Production)
The Pyrenees hills are a gentle range to the northwest of Melbourne, Australia. The hills reach 2,600 feet in elevation, but the area's vineyards are clustered in a more modest belt between 650 and 1,500 feet of elevation. The region's climate strikes a balance between the cooler, wetter coast and the intense heat to be found further inland.

Intense sunshine and moderate warmth, combined with cool evenings, make for a lengthy growing season and good retention of acidity in the wines. In addition to the standard cast of Shiraz and friends, the region has proven capable of producing competent sparkling wines from Pinot Noir and Chardonnay. Taltarni, Dalwhinnnie, and Warrenmang are among the stalwarts in the area. (Wine/Appellations)