About Scotch Whisky

Barley makes fairly lousy bread and it turns up in soup now and again, and in sundry health-food cookbooks, but it took the Scots to fully understand that if you malted it, brewed it, and distilled the result, you could convert barley into what many ardent sippers believe is the finest spirit on the planet, if you don’t ask the French. A secondary benefit was that it often led to happy times in fields of the self-same grain.

Twas a gift of Irish distillation was. The barley was just growing there on the fells and in the glens along with heather and gorse, and the Picts, Celtic grandparents of today’s Scots, used it to make beer, which they flavored with heather. (Whether drinking this beer had anything to do with their tendency to paint themselves blue remains a mystery.) The beer was liable to become nasty over time, as beer will in a pre-cooler world, and Irish monks, in town to explain Christianity to the blue Picts, passed along the instructions for turning barley beer into a potent spirit, a virtual water of life, that would keep forever. Keeping it, of course, eventually led to keeping it in wooden casks, the first step on the road to the malt whisky we savor today. Things rolled along fairly smoothly—invasions, famines, wars and massacres aside—for a few hundred years, with whisky being produced by crofters and traded or sold locally. Until the English arrived and brought civilization, which by the early 18th century included taxes on whisky, which were followed immediately by tax evasion.

By the end of the 18th century, there were many more illegal stills than licensed operations north of the River Tweed. By 1820, excise officers were seizing 14,000 illegal stills per year, and it is estimated that half of the whisky poured down Caledonian throats was tax-free. A more reasonable licensing tax in 1823 gave the edge, along with modern distillation methods (thought by some to be a product of the Industrial Revolution on a par with the railroads) to licensed distillers, some of whom are still in the business of boiling barley wine today. The moonshiners persisted valiantly for some years but eventually all but disappeared. Today, distilleries will take you on hikes along old smugglers’ trails, although locals will also tell you that any trail you might come across was likely to have been a smugglers’ trail at one time.

The whiskey these early legal distilleries (the first licensed one was George Smith’s Glenlivet, in, well, the glen of the river Livet, where he’d been producing a pretty fair whisky for some time) was made from the traditional malted barley, sprouted and then dried over peat fires. This was from necessity—the forests that covered the highlands in Scotland had been clear-cut, denuded of trees, long before the licensed production of whisky, leaving peat the practical source for drying the malt in the early distilleries. The practice of double-distilling in copper pots, the first still producing what are known as low wines, the second reducing that distillation to a more palatable spirit, was introduced very early. Not long after, the invention of the continuous column still in the 1830s (thought by some pot-still advocates to be a step backward in the Industrial Revolution) brought faster, cheaper production of a light grain whiskey, made from cereal grains including unmalted barley, corn and wheat. Almost immediately whisky merchants discovered that the depth of flavor in copper pot-still malt was such that it could be diluted with large percentages of this grain whisky and still retain the taste character, although in a softer, gentler incarnation which, to their delight, also sold quite well. Among the earliest blends were Dewars, Haig, and Black and White. Relatively quickly, blended whisky dominated the international Scotch trade, until 90% of the sales of malt whisky was in blends. In England, malt whisky dominated, and still dominates, to the extent that the word whisky brings you a malt whisky from Scotland unless otherwise stipulated.

The resurgence of single malts—malt whisky from a single Scottish distillery, blended only with other whiskies from the same source—has eaten into the dominance of blends to some extent, although world-wide they still represent the predominance of all malt whisky sold.

To further confuse you, there is a category now called “Blended Malt.” This is a whisky made from a blend of single malts from two or more distilleries, but no column-still grain whisky. This was historically called “vatted malt” and, briefly, “pure malt,” and the hope is that this is the permanent nomenclature, you should pardon the expression.

The Highlands. A large and diverse area north of Dundee in the east and Greenock in the west, minus the Spey River valley. The whiskies are generally unpeated or lightly peated, medium-bodied and will range from lush, rich and sweet to floral.

Speyside. The central northern part of the country, the valley of the River Spey, south of Inverness. The area around Dufftown, part of the Speyside Whiskey Trail, is among the oldest whisky-producing areas of Scotland, and is thought by many to produce malts with the most appeal to the American (read Bourbon-raised) palate, and represents many of the best known malts outside of Scotland, including Macallan, Glen Livet and Glenfiddich.

The Islands. All the inner and outer Hebrides, with the exception of Islay, they include Skye, reached by a bridge and home to Talisker, a heavily peated, Islay-like whisky; Orkney, reached by birds, sturdy boats and a lot of nerve and home to Highland Park, a sherry-aged whisky with a powerful sweetness; and Jura, which is rowboat distance from Islay and produces a slick, smoky, spicy whisky. The islands are less a style, although an iodine/salt/briny character is often present, than a default category.

Islay, the most mispronounced place in the UK (say EYE-luh) is a big island off the west coast and home to the smokiest, most distinctively pungent and medicinal Scotches. Some sippers will also attribute a salty character to them, many being aged in warehouses within spraying distance of the sea.

The Lowlands are the Scottish mainland south of the Highlands except the Kintyre Peninsula. Lowland malts, a smaller production, are sometimes called pretty—light, sweet, floral. In another time, people would sometimes call them the Lady’s Malt, but we certainly wouldn’t say a thing like that.

Campbeltown, the smallest area, is a port on the southwest Kintyre Peninsula with just three distilleries today, the best known of which is Springbank, which produces a rich, spicy whisky characteristic of the region’s heyday.

Finally, malt whiskey is probably the most varied version of the same thing that you’ll ever taste. Always made from just water and malted barley (OK, maybe a touch of caramel for color) yet as different as can be, a lesson in the magic of copper pots, distilling methods, wood-aging and blending. And the fun’s in tasting them all.

Top Picks for Scotch Whisky

John Walker & Sons 2015 Private Collection Blended Scotch Whisky
97 points
Golden amber color. Fruity, spicy aromas of fruit cake and spiced toffee with a supple, lively, fruity medium-to-full body and a warming, very long caramelized fruits, rich baking spices, smoked nuts, and pepper finish. A fantastically robust and flavorful blend with great fruit and delicate smoke.
Old Pulteney Navigator Single Malt Scotch Whisky
96 points
Clear gold color. Elegant, perfumed aromas of pear cobbler, honeysuckle, gardenia, and lychee and yellow cake with a silky, vibrant, dry-yet-fruity light-to-medium body and a tingling, colossal, endless candied almonds, night-blooming jasmine, white tea and cola syrup, and candied tropical fruits with nutmeg finish. A dream of a whisky that dances into the senses and captivates with her seemingly endless finale.
Awards: 2017 Best Highland Single Malt Scotch
Laphroaig 10 Year Old Cask Strength Islay Single Malt Scotch Whisky
96 points
Bright clear gold color. Rich, attractive, roasted herbal aromas of toasted focaccia, smoked nuts, fruitcake, and hot pepper jelly with an oily, lively, fizzy, dry medium-full body and a hot, involved, very long iodine, Band-Aid, chestnut honey, and white cigar ash finish. A smoky, fiery beast that needs a few drops of water to tame to an Islay gentleman.
96 points $69.99
GLENDRONACH "Revival" 15 Year Old  Single Malt Whisky
96 points
Brilliant amber color. Bright, attractive aromas of dark roasted nuts, cocoa, and smoldering pipe tobacco with a chewy, tangy, dry-yet-fruity medium-to-full body and a warming, very long toasty honeyed granola, toffee, rich spices, and smoked pepper and minerals finish. A superlative, seemingly endless Highland single malt with great flavor, personality, and poise.
96 points $89.99
The Macallan Double Cask 12 Year Old Single Malt Scotch Whisky
95 points
Bright golden amber color. Inviting aromas and flavors of cinnamon and red apples, leather furniture, morning forest and maple-walnut, and sourdough and toasty oak with a lightly tannic, crisp, dryish medium body and a warming, interesting, medium-long plum fruit leather, menthol lozenge, caramel and chocolate fudge, and ginger-cinnamon candy finish. Big spice and drying leatheriness beacons the imbiber for another sip; a natural cigar pairing.
Highland Park Valkyrie Single Malt Scotch
95 points
Light gold color. Smoky aromas of burning cigarette paper, freshly baked biscuits, sweet honey and burnt orange, and shoe shop with a round, vibrant, fruity medium-to-full body and a warming, very complex, very long cherry jam, luxury leather, warm wet sand, and mango chutney and mixed peppercorns finish. A tempestuous storm of a whiskey that brings with it several lifetimes of flavor and intrigue.
Awards: 2017 Best Island Single Malt Scotch
95 points $79.99
The Dalmore 15 Year Old Single Highland Malt Scotch Whisky
95 points
Brilliant dark amber color. Nutty, grainy aromas and flavors of butter sautéed nuts and barley, toasted fig bread, leather, and maple nut fudge with a supple, bright, dryish medium-to-full body and a silky, complex, medium-long mocha creme brulee, delicately spiced dried fruits, and smoked tobacco finish. A supple, very refined highland malt with pitch perfect balance.
Aberfeldy 21 Year Old Highland Single Malt Scotch Whisky
95 points
Bright gold color. Bright, waxy aromas of honeycomb, dark caramel, raisin toast, and leather with a supple, lively, dry-yet-fruity medium body and a tingling, interesting, medium-length nuts, honeyed dried fruits, floral earth, and cedar finish. A nicely nuanced and layered Highland single malt.
95 points $133.99
John Walker & Sons King George V Blended Scotch Whisky
95 points
Bright golden amber color. Bright, inviting, floral aromas of dried blossoms, honeyed pancake, and caramelized nuts with a silky, crisp, off-dry medium body and a warming, interesting, long dried fruits, brown spices, smoky earth, and pepper finish. A great Scotch blend with a vibrant, well balanced fruit and grain flavor profile.
John Walker & Sons "Odyssey" Blended Malt Scotch Whisky
95 points
Brilliant golden amber color. Bright, attractive, complex aromas of creme brulee, tropical fruit compote, bananas foster, and leather with a creamy, crisp, dry-yet-fruity medium-to-full body and a warming, subtle, long peach pastry, delicate baking and bbq spices, sweet cream, and minerals finish. A superbly balanced blended Scotch oozing with flavor and personality.
95 points $1100